Currently viewing the tag: "Sócrates Silva"

Moderator: Gayle A. Williams, Florida International University
Rapporteur: Jade Kara Mishler, Tulane University

T-Kay Sangwand, University of Texas at Austin
A procura da batida perfeita: The Art of (Collecting) Brazilian Hip Hop

Suzanne M. Schadl & Viviane Ferreira de Faria, University of New Mexico
Borderlands Reinvented and Revisited: Third Space Intersections of Portuguese Language Literature in Print and Image

Sócrates Silva, University of California, Santa Barbara
Samba, choro, baião: Documenting Early Brazilian Sound Recordings at the UCSB Library

Donald M. Vorp, Princeton Theological Seminary Library
Studying Brazilian Christianity in Princeton

T-Kay Sangwand presented on collecting Brazilian hip hop at the University of Texas.  She spoke about the historical trajectory of hip hop and identified trends and gaps in the scholarly conversation. T-Kay explained different ways in which she has obtained Brazilian hip hop materials for the library.  She has had success working with vendors.  LC Rio had been particularly amenable to acquiring a subscription to “Rap Nacional,” a key Brazilian hip hop journal.  Through acquisitions trips T-Kay was able to attend hip hop shows, buy directly from artists and access the underground hip hop scene.  T-Kay has worked directly with graduate students and faculty to identify materials of interest.  Lastly, T-Kay recognized potential challenges that collecting hip hop presents.   She spoke about audiovisual material being published on the internet through blogs, websites, and youtube, as well as important hip hop groups that function primarily on Facebook.  She asked, “How can the library capture these types of material and provide access to them?”

Suzanne M. Schadl and Viviane Ferreira de Faria presented on two art exhibitions they curated: “AfroBrasil: Art and Identities” in August 2015 and “Borderlands Reinvented and Revisited: Portuguese Language and Literature in Print and Image” in fall 2015.  Viviane explained that they designed the exhibitions with the following users in mind: the academic community, library users, the local community and the international community.  Both exhibits were comprised of library collections, including special collections, canonical texts, cordeis, cartoneras, graphic novels, and films. They creatively used the space. Local musicians were invited to the opening reception of the “Borderlands” exhibit.  The “AfroBrasil” exhibit included Candomblé altars.

Sócrates Silva presented on two current initiatives at the UCSB Library to document music production.  The first, Discography of American Historical Recordings (DAHR), is a database that documents the output of American record companies during the 78rpm era.  DAHR includes more than 100,000 master recordings (matrixes).  There are 467 Brazilian Victor recordings in the database that were added from secondary sources.   In 2012 the USCB Library received a $239,600 grant in order to Catalog 18,000 78s from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, France, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Spain from the 1900s-1960s (the bulk of them are from 1900s-1940s).

Donald M. Vorp presented on the Princeton Theological Seminary Library and their collections. The Seminary Library houses more than a million items and is considered one of the premier theological research centers. In the 1970’s Latin American and Iberian materials started being collected at the Seminary Library.  There are now more than 25,000 volumes in Spanish and Portuguese and 1,300 current and historical periodicals from Latin American and the Iberian Peninsula. Donald explained that the Seminary Library has numerous collections of interest for the study of Brazilian Christianity/Christianities.  Of Special note are the microfilm collections, such as the Iglesia en Brasil collection.  The library also has relevant journals, such as “Estudos Biblicos,” “Revista de Interpretação Biblica Latino-Americana,” and “Estudos de Religião.”  Some Brazilian theologians are active participants in the Global Network for Public Theology that was founded at the Center of Theological Inquiry in Princeton in 2007.  The Global Network is associated with the “International Journal of Public Theology,” which devoted a special issue in 2012 to “Public Theology in Brazil”.

Jade Mishler asked Suzanne M. Schadl and Viviane Ferreira de Faria if putting together scholarly and popular resources and working with the public at large was an idea born in the library or if it was directly related to a larger university mission.   Viviane said that these ideas were generated out of the library.   They wanted to make the special collections more accessible, visible and to integrate them.  Suzanne said it came out of trying to challenge a healthy collection budget with materials that are primary in scope, and could be utilized by students, community members, graduate students and faculty members.   She said that there is an ongoing administrative-level and faculty level conversation at UNM about community engagement.

Carlos Navarro (University of New Mexico) asked if there is hip hop coming out of favelas in Rio.  T-Kay said that Baile Funk came out of Rio and is similar to hip hop in some ways.  She contrasted the drug trafficking and consumerist lyrics in Baile Funk  with more politically conscious hip hop lyrics.  T-Kay said that there is some politically conscious hip hop coming out of Rio.  There are community centers that are trying to attract members with hip hop.

T-Kay asked Donald if there are music ethnologists or theologians looking at the evangelist messages in Brazilian gospel rap.  Donald said he wasn’t aware of any theologians working on that.

Gayle Williams asked T-Kay if she’s seen Cordel Literature that is about hip hop or hip hop that mentions Cordel literature.  T-Kay said she’s not that familiar with Cordel literature and isn’t sure.  Viviane said that Cordel literature tends to react to everything and she wouldn’t be surprised.   Suzanne said that some Samba artists were featured in the Cordel literature in their exhibit.

Viviane asked Donald how he has perceived the ascendance of Evangelism in Brazil with both the people and within congress.  She asked if Donald could foresee the election of an Evangelic president within the next two elections.  Donald said there are internal conflicts among the Brazilian evangelicals  and it’s been interesting to see how one group ascends over the other.  He said there are a growing number of evangelicals trying to engage with social realities in Brazilian culture, which leads them to political engagement.

Rapporteur:     Jennifer Osorio, UCLA

Sócrates Silva, University of California, Santa Barbara
La Familia: Documenting LGBTQ Student Networks in Higher Education

Michael Scott, Georgetown University
Contad@s: Data Sources on LGBT-Headed Families in Latin America

Melissa Gasparotto, Rutgers University
Uncovering the US Latina Lesbian Genealogy

Sócrates Silva presented his work on the documenting LGBTQ student groups in California, entitled, “La Familia: Documenting LGBTQ Student Networks in Higher Education.” He began with a definition of family from The Queen’s Vernacular:  A Gay Dictionary (1972) as way to set the context for his study of family in the queer context, and how student groups at higher education institutions in California served as a space where ethnic identity is merged with queerness, and both are celebrated and embraced. In this way they contribute to campus political activity but also serve a social function. Silva focused on California groups with “La Familia” in their name, asking the following questions:

1) Why did the concept of family resonate with these groups?
2) What are the connections between these groups?
3) What kind of documentation can be found about these groups, and in a larger context, what function do university archives have in documenting student groups: and what is it about university archives that makes that function difficult? Why should this matter for a “transient” group?

Through interviews on the UCSB campus, he determined that the number of people on campus who were queer and Chicano was so small, that it almost felt like the group was predetermined. As such, many of the groups are not hierarchical and most social media groups are closed. Archiving them is difficult for these reasons, and also because of the transitory nature of the groups, there is little continuity to websites. This creates difficulty for web archiving, but it helps create a safer space for groups that still experience hostility and alienation on college campuses.

Next, Michael Scott presented “Contad@s: Data Sources on LGBT-Headed Families in Latin America.“ The main focus of Scott’s project was to investigate how governments construct sexuality, more so than the actual sources themselves. But gathering the data is difficult for a number of reasons, including the fact that census sites are often developed by statisticians, not information professionals. Thus, the data is often easier to find in reports, which he demonstrated with reports from Argentina, or in the actual questionnaires themselves. Even then, the questionnaires often don’t ask about orientation, they only ask about relationships, so people who are not part of a couple do not get counted.

Sócrates Silva (UCSB) asked where these non-governmental groups were getting their information, in that case and the answer was that they were mostly doing their own limited polling.

Scott named several non-governmental groups, mostly in Argentina and Mexico, that are providing their own data. Other entities, such as the Latin American Public Opinion Project has had questions about same sex marriages and other queer issues in their survey for the last five years, and the Gender Watch database is very good for getting primary resources on LGBT issues in Latin America.

Nora, from the Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Sociales y Desarrollo (INCEDES) asked why Scott had not included Guatemala and he replied that Guatemala does not include questions about sexuality in their census. Only Brazil, Argentina, possibly Costa Rica and Mexico do, and Chile has plans to include them in their upcoming census.

Finally, Melissa Gasparotto presented her paper titled “Uncovering U.S. Latina Lesbian Genealogy.” She explained that her presentation was really about the value of raising students’ critical consciousness about hierarchies within the library, particularly in the context of overlapping identities, such as queer/latino. Rutgers, where Gasparotto works, has a very diverse population, include a Latino population that is more diverse than usual (most investigations at other institutions have been about Chican@s). Because of Rutger’s mission and past leadership, there is very active and enthusiastic queer activism. She initially started when students came to her looking to find themselves in the literature, and found that a lot of terms used to describe the population were static and inaccurate. She argues that it’s important to help students understand the histories of hierarchies, because it doesn’t occur to them that libraries are political entities. Working with faculty to ensure that class goals include critical thinking about data and sources on the part of students ensures that they will better understand the ways in which terminology can affect research.

A discussion followed with several participants discussing ways in which student groups could be encouraged to archive their materials. Ryan Lynch (Knox College) asked Silva if anybody has experimented with college archives helping students do some self-archiving and figuring out some confidential ways to store materials. Silva replied that, yes that could be an approach. One of the issues is that students are just too busy and so are archivists, so he was wondering how Rutgers managed it. Gasparotto answered that she thought it really came down to Rutger’s history as an activist institution.

Anne Barnhart (University of West Georgia) suggested targeting faculty advisors, but Gasparotto pointed out that those advisors change a lot; Lynch agreed, noting that the groups themselves also changed frequently and that some of them were not the kinds of groups that worked with advisor.

Sarah Hogan (University of Chicago) wanted to know if some of the groups on the UCSB campus that Silva had studied where splintering as they found themselves focused on different issues. He responded that at UCSB, El Centro was actually an umbrella organization with some 10 different groups of various affinities. Gasparotto asked if anyone worked somewhere where groups were not under student organizations but where instead situated under a fully staffed center, like at Rutgers. Roberto Delgadillo (UC Davis) said that they have a new cross-cultural center that houses many groups but that some are housed elsewhere and there are communications issues. Hogan mentioned two different projects occurring at the University of Chicago to document LGBT groups. Ryan Lynch pointed out that Cornell does a very good job of archiving LGBT student groups and has been doing so since the 1960’s.

Tracy North (Library of Congress) asked Gasparotto to talk more about the hierarchies of LoC subject headings. Gasparotto replied that subject headings are moving targets — that the terminology is always changing and we’ll always be playing catch up. Even the queer community doesn’t have terminology everyone can agree on, and she referred to Emily Stravinsky’s paper arguing that we should just leave the subject headings static so that people would be forced to confront archaic terminology and its effects. Gasparotto wants the word queer to just cover everything as it’s been “accepted” but Barnhart pointed out that acceptance of that term is very regional and that it is very problematic on her campus.

Ryan Lynch (Knox College) asked Scott if other countries had found a way to combat the situation in Bolivia, where questions about sexuality where left off the census because it was feared that people wouldn’t want to confess such matters to census takers. Scott replied that what really seemed to be changing attitudes was the passage of same sex marriage laws, as in Argentina and Chile.

Silva asked about the questions on the LAPOP and whether the questions were being asked in all the countries covered by the project. Scott said that yes, the same questions were asked in all the countries and that they tended to be things like “What do you think about gay marriage?” or “What do you think about homosexuality?”

Gasparotto asked if Silva had a timeline for finishing his project and visiting California Archive and he said that not yet, but he was also interested in conducting some oral histories.

Finally, Barnhart requested that the presenters put their materials in the SALALM institutional repository for use by others, especially any teaching materials.

Panel 5, May 30, 2011, 4:00 pm- 5:30 pm
Moderator: Peter Stern, University of Massachusetts
Presenters: Molly Molloy, New Mexico State University (not present; PowerPoint presented by Peter Stern); Tomás Bocanegra Esqueda, Colegio de México; Suzanne Schadl and Claire-Lise Bénaud, University of New Mexico
Rapporteur: Sócrates Silva, HAPI


The first presentation was “The Shifting Realities of Mexico’s Drug War Death Toll: Will We Ever Know How Many People Have Died?” by Molly Molloy. Molloy was not present but the panel’s moderator, Peter Stern, presented her PowerPoint. The following is a summary of Molloy’s presentation, drafted with her consultation. Molloy argues that the Mexican government is not fighting a “War on Drugs” but rather a war for the control over the huge amounts of money to be made from the drug trade. The number of casualties related to this war and the statistics released by the government are not clear; journalistic and academic sources in Mexico and the United States provide widely varying numbers. Since December 2006 when the government of Felipe Calderón declared “war” on organized crime numbers range from 35,000 to as high as 50,000. Molloy’s presentation looks at and questions these numbers both to critique the actions of the Mexican government and to question the numbers reported by academic resources and the press.


In her presentation, Molloy hones in on data regarding Ciudad Juárez, the epicenter of the violence. When numbers of dead are reported in the media, sources are typically government bodies such as the Fiscalia General del Estado de Chihuahua. Mexican journalists who report on crimes are often at risk. Molloy mentions Armando Rodriguez, a crime reporter for El Diario who was murdered in November 2008. After his death the crime reporting in the paper became less detailed and solely dependent on official police reports. There is little information about where the numbers come from or how the government determines what “a drug-war-related homicide” is. Calderón and his government repeatedly claim that 90 percent of the dead are criminals in the drug trade, despite a claim by the government that 95 percent of deaths in the “drug war” are not investigated.


Molloy also looks at the scholarship and activism concerning the murders of women in Juárez as cases of femicide. The number of women victimized from 1993 to the present has averaged around 9 percent of all murder victims. There is little evidence of gender-related violence. More and more women are becoming involved in illegal activities as maquiladora jobs disappear due to both the economic collapse in the United States and local violence and insecurity. This of course , how to make, does not mean that their deaths do not matter but rather that all the people of Juárez (women, men, boys and girls) – their lives and their deaths, all of them matter. Molloy whose work was recognized in 2011 with the José Toribio Medina Award provides daily updates on the murder toll in Ciudad Juárez and other border news through her Frontera List.


The second presentation by Tomás Bocanegra Esqueda entitled “Literatura mexicana sobre los derechos humanos: ¿quienes son y dónde publican los especialistas mexicanos?” covered publishing sources on the theme of human rights. Bocanegra first outlined government sources specializing in this material. The Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos (CNDH) created by the Secretaría de Gobernación and after 1999 fully independent of the government, exists to receive human rights complaints, pursue investigations, attempt conflict resolution, and foster legislative changes across various levels of government. CNDH also offers relevant Masters and Doctoral programs through its Centro Nacional de Derechos Humanos (CENADEH). Through its existence CENADEH has generated promotional literature, annual reports, monographs and a monthly journal, Revista del Centro Nacional de Derechos Humanos. Bocanegra also reviewed literature production by state government bodies, though these tend to publish less due to lack of financial resources and staff.


In addition, non-governmental organizations such as the Academia Mexicana de Derechos Humanos, the Centro de Derechos Humanos “Fray Francisco de Vitoria,” and the Centro de Derechos Humanos Miguel Agustín Pro Juárez all publish materials and research related to human rights and many of these publications can be found online. There are also numerous research institutions within universities, some with a specific focus on such issues as indigenous rights, migration, or international human rights. Bocanegra also looked at houses within the trade publishing industry that have edited and published human rights materials. By outlining these various publishing sources, Bocanegra hopes for more effective dissemination of Mexican human rights materials.


The last presentation “ASARO: Claiming Space in Digital Objects and Social Networks” by Suzanne Schadl and Claire-Lise Bénaud looked at the work of the Asamblea de Artistas Revolucionarios de Oaxaca (ASARO), a collective of young artists that emerged as an appendage to protests originating from the 2006 National Teacher’s Union strike in Oaxaca. During the protracted uprising, state and commercial media were hostile to the protestors. In turn, street art flourished as artists clandestinely painted and printed their resistance on city walls. Schadl and Bénaud make the case that the work of ASARO is part of a Mexican tradition of graphic art collectives producing work in the service of social justice such as that of the Taller de Grafíca Popular and harking back to the legacy of printmaker José Guadalupe Posada. According to Schadl, this art tells a story that isn’t the official story. While ASARO’s art often portrays conditions in Oaxaca (such as the print Skull Helicopter which uses calavera representations of a family and a hovering calavera helicopter to depict a raid which would trigger a reminder of the uprising), the art also looks beyond local conditions, for example in art that deals with the violence in Ciudad Juárez.


One of the concerns Schadl and Bénaud bring up is that this ephemeral work, much of it being published through the ASARO blog, is not being documented properly. While ASARO may be center stage in 21st century Mexican graphic arts, academic library and archive projects aimed at archiving born digital artifacts of their work linger in the peripheries. A perusal of the blog reveals striking similarities with newspaper publications like La Patria Ilustrada and Gaceta Callejera, where Posada published, printed, and circulated his graphic production. Schadl and Bénaud argue that savvy digitally focused archival projects designed to save the work of Mexican graphic arts collectives must emerge in order to retain for posterity the creativity and voices of politically and socially active artists’ collectives in contemporary Mexico.