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Monday, June 15, 2015 4:30 p.m. – 6:00 p.m.
Moderator: Alison Hicks, University of Colorado, Boulder
Rapporteur: Melissa Gasparotto, Rutgers University
Sara Levinson, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Following the Clues and Getting Help from your Friends: Creating a Catalog Record for an Item Written Almost Entirely in a Language You Don’t Understand
Leif Adelson, Books from Mexico
Reflections on Why There Are So Few Digital Format Academic Titles in Mexico
Jesus Alonso-Regalado, SUNY/Albany
Crowdfunding and Collection Development
Lisa Gardinier, University of Iowa
Conversaciones con fanzineros: Collecting Zines in Latin America
D Ryan Lynch, Knox College
US LIbraries for Beginners: Library Instruction for ESOL students
Jorge Matos, Hostos Community College/CUNY
Latino Librarianship in a Predominately Latino Community College: Thoughts form a New Junior Faculty.
Ana Ramirez Luhrs, Lafayette College
Crossing the Border: Librarians in the Classroom Beyond Information Literacy
David Woken, University of Oregon
Human Rights and Genocide: Leveraging Academic Library Resources to Support Secondary Education
Sara Levinson, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Following the Clues and Getting Help from your Friends: Creating a Catalog
Record for an Item Written Almost Entirely in a Language You Don’t Understand
Building off of last year’s presentation on correcting and enhancing OCLC records, Levinson spoke about collaboration as a solution. In the previous year’s presentation she had used a problematic MARC record for an illustrated story demonstrating that the language was problematic and format was inaccurate. She was pretty sure it was a Mayan language but not sure which one. After returning from that conference, Levinson was contacted by another SALALM member, Ellen Jaramillo, who suggested a possible dialect, Tzotzil Maya, and developed a partial translation of title. Jaramillo found Princeton’s institutional record for the same item which somehow is not in OCLC. It’s also partially in Spanish. In that record, a proper name was mentioned and there was an authority file for him and he turned out to be a Tzotzil religious leader. Levinson edited the OCLC record and made changes to Princeton’s record, adding a “comics and graphic novels” heading and deleting an old incorrect heading for Huitzil readers. The final takeaway is that OCLC is only as good as the information that member institutions contribute to it and cooperation is key to the process.
Leif Adelson, Books from Mexico
Reflections on Why There Are So Few Digital Format Academic Titles in Mexico
Adelson noted that Mexican academic institutions produce the overwhelming majority of Mexican academic titles. There are independent houses that publish with academic publishing houses, too, but this is a small portion of production (less than 10% estimate by Adelson). There are other potential sources for digital publishing – author self publishing, small publishing outfits, NGOs, etc., but they lack the impetus and wherewithal to intervene in publishing digital monographs. Squeezed between forces, content producers must publish for academic stature while income pressures producers to make their writings available digitally. Also international electronic distributors approach publishers and offer money to publish those products on their format. But presses believe they should distribute publicly funded research for free. All are poorly equipped to conduct a cost benefits analysis. Given that this is a new field, it’s hard to calculate profit potential from free digital publications. Many academic publishers have been shielded from market pressures and don’t know how to transition to profit seeking digital publishing.
Many presses want to distribute in this way but rights management and technical platform considerations make things more complicated; plus, these conversations are slower to get moving in Mexico. Additionally, institutional academic publishers have a long history of non-bottom-line mentality. Generating revenue or being economically stable has not been part of equation.
There are opportunities (e.g., aggressive strategies in digitizing, publishing and publicizing through vendors) that could help alleviate economic pressures. Additionally, the government could issue standards for digital publications or create a national server for these digitized monographs. These things could put Mexico in front of today’s digital academic publishing trends.
Jesus Alonso-Regalado, SUNY/Albany
Crowdfunding and Collection Development
Alonso-Regalado made the distinction between this topic and fundraising for library-generated library projects. His project deals with generating revenue to fund projects outside the library (projects by authors or filmmakers that result in books or videos): the library helping to create items that they then collect. He sees this as a potential for libraries to be co-creators in the production of knowledge. He advocated for crowdfunding for creation of materials as a valid method of collection development, as many of these crowdfunding projects might not happen without library support.
How can librarians do this? Support may be provided via Kickstarter, Indiegogo, USEED. Alonso-Regalado uses same collection development criteria with these projects as he would for other more traditional collection development decisions, such as reading project description, etc. Many times, supporting the crowdfunded project is the only way you can acquire these limited edition items, but any library, large or small, can afford this. However, fund management and structure might be problematic. In Kickstarter you put in chargecard but you don’t pay until the project reaches its goal. But what if that creator never finishes the item/project.? The creator must work that out with funders. You can advocate for these things even if you’re not doing it directly, and have someone else back the project and donate the resulting items.
Alonso-Regalado talked about four projects he had backed in this way.The book Invisible Immigrants Spaniards in the US 1868-1945, and the films Papa Machete, Memories of Guantanamo, and Save our film: la ciudad.
Lisa Gardinier, University of Iowa
Conversaciones con fanzineros: Collecting Zines in Latin America
Gardinier had been collecting zines from Latin America for last 3 years. Zines are generally self-published with intention of being serial, and they are often personal.
The acquisition of zines typically requires an informal method of collecting. For example, attending “La Otra FIL” in Guadalajara, which happens in conjunction with the larger book fair, but at another site. Sometimes zines come to her in Iowa in the form of visiting artists who can either donate their own works or put her in touch with others. Social events can lead to collecting opportunities, and she has had lots of conversations with fanzineros about why she was collecting and the value of exerting effort to build these collections. One of the most important parts of building a collection like this is building relationships, showing creators that people care and that this material is important. The work represents voices that are otherwise unheard and so these materials belong in an academic library. These materials are getting the same treatment as any other acquisition format. Since they’re inexpensive, budget is not much of a problem.
Q&A for first half of the panel
Jade Mischler of Tulane asked Alonso-Regalado how he finds out about these projects. Is he in Kickstarter searching, or does searching elsewhere lead him to Kickstarter? He answered that both were the case.
Daisy Dominguez of City College asked Alonso-Regalado if he had supported a project that was unsuccessful and how did that look to library administrators? He did back a project that ultimately failed but they tried again. His support of these projects was a proof of concept so he used his own money and donated books.
AJ Johnson of UT-Benson asked if Alonso-Regalado had looked into any music projects on Kickstarter. He answered that he hadn’t seen projects for Latin American music. He added that other platforms for crowdsourcing allow you to connect things to development office of the university. If your library doesn’t want to do it, you can try to convince your constituents to do it and donate toward the item.
Miguel Valladares of University of Virginia asked Gardinier if she was collecting zines from Spain? She answered yes, but unintentionaly. They’re very transnational She can find one country’s publications in another. For example Spanish anarchist zines from the late 90s are still floating around Latin America with prices in Pesetas. They get photocopied over and over and redistributed.
David Woken of University of Oregon noted that he had tried crowdfunding and backs a lot personally. People may present themselves well but there may be problems after the fact. For example, one video project on racism that he has personally backed is taking a long time and getting lots of criticism from other documentary makers for failing to secure proper permissions, You don’t know if the product will be made ethically. Alonso-Regalado responded that this is a question of trust and that if they fail it will affect their reputation. He added that he will alert SALALM members if/when he identifies other projects of interest.
D Ryan Lynch, Knox College
US LIbraries for Beginners: Library Instruction for ESOL students
How do you engage students in academic support resources at your college or university? How do you overcome perceived or real barriers preventing access to resources like the library or tutoring? Lynch is the library liaison for all non-departmental centers and offices (e.g., Center for Teaching and Learning, Global Studies) and spoke about involvement with IELP (Intensive English Language Program) a two-week summer bridge program for international students who need extra language and writing skills to help them get a jump start before semester. This was the college’s very first summer bridge program, and part of the VPAA initiative to focus on retention and success. It was approved at the last minute so there was little time to prepare.
The ½ credit program consisted of six hours of English language and writing instruction each day for ten days. Instruction was delivered by Center for Teaching and Learning and peer writing tutors. The library provided 4 short sessions (two times each week of the program). The library sessions were scheduled for the end of the day and students were inevitably exhausted by the time they arrived. The goals for library sessions were to cover the physical space, the librarians, library resources including I-share, helping students understand the differences between types of information, where to look, and search strategies.
Lynch sought feedback on expectations, constructive criticism and information on student engagement with resources on campus, conducting six semi-structured interviews over 7-8 hours. When asked why they chose to participate in the program, most said they had gaps in English and/or lacked confidence. Some students wanted to get to know the town, some wanted to meet people and others wanted to get an edge. One student remarked that for “every international student no matter how well you are prepared you are still underprepared.”
Five out of six students had come to the reference desk and half had sent their friends to the desk. Every student had remembered every skill covered in the four library sessions. Five out of six had used tutoring and three had referred their friends. They sent their friends to people they were familiar with. All students were positive about the program, but they were a particularly highly motivated group and perhaps not representative. Lynch concluded that this was a nice model for helping less acculturated students become more acclimated to and more engaged with support.
Jorge Matos, Hostos Community College/CUNY
Latino Librarianship in a Predominately Latino Community College: Thoughts form a New Junior Faculty.
Matos began by presenting demographics of Hostos at a glance: 60% of students are Latino, and many are West Indian, as well. 65% are women, ¾ of students live in households earning less than $30k/year. Half are the first generation to attend college, and 1/3 continue on to 4 year institutions. The college serves lots of working mothers and other working students. These facts aren’t always obstacles and can sometimes add to the educational experience. Hostos was founded in 1968 through political pressure/advocacy, and located in old abandoned tire factory. There were no labs, pool, theater or gym. The 1975-7 Save Hostos campaign, in response to a decision to close the school and merge it with Bronx Community College, was a major turning point in the school’s history. Students, faculty and the community participated in mass demonstrations and engaged in civil disobedience. Supporters took over the Grand Concourse for a whole afternoon and brought classrooms into the street. In a strategy to bring national attention and establishment press to focus on the issue, they occupied the college for 20 days and the New York State Assembly eventually conceded to protests. These actions lead to the saving of the college and its continued development into what it is today. Hostos is a service-oriented institution and during his first year Matos participated in traditional reference and instruction, bilingual services and interaction with students and staff. Many students are recent immigrants. Sonia Sotomayor’s mother graduated from the college in the 70s with a degree in nursing.
Matos concluded with observations from first year. The current challenges include funding and space issues, library instruction and outreach to faculty (there is limited library staff), services to students with disabilities (modern adaptive technologies are a challenge), the increasing role of community college as site of workforce development and remedial education. Community colleges may be seen as an institution of last resort of lower income and communities of color or the disabled; this is a national trend.
Ana Ramirez Luhrs, Lafayette College
Crossing the Border: Librarians in the Classroom Beyond Information Literacy
Lafayette College is a small 4 year liberal arts college with approximately 2,000 students in Eastern Pennsylvania. The student body is mostly middle to upper-middle class and caucasian and Ramirez Luhrs serves as an advisor to Hispanic students at the college. She partnered with a LAS historian who works on Argentina and is interested in issues on gender and diversity on campus. They taught a class on these issues in 2013. The History 275 course was a 50/50 shared collaboration so Ramirez Luhrs was a teacher as well as embedded librarian. The course was organized around the themes “moving, mapping and telling.” Harvest of Empire was their main text and an anchor for all class discussions.
Ramirez Luhrs discussed the resources she used during each of the class themes.
This theme explored Mexican migrant workers in US (going back to Treaty of Guadalupe), and the Brazero program. It was important to use primary sources and teach visual literacy. The novel’s Mother Tongue and Drown were used for this theme. A few Latino students on campus self-selected for the class. Some were Dominican so the instructors added the Junot Diaz book to relate more.
Ramirez Luhrs is interested in the politics of Latino immigration, so the class took a deep look at the Census and its history of representation of Hispanics and Latinos through the years. She also used Pew Hispanic Center as a resource because she wanted to give students a chance to access good data that doesn’t need to be crunched too much.
Anzaldua’s Borderlands was used in support of this theme. Ramirez-Luhrs taught students how to use governmental primary sources to research law. Students completed an assignment on legislation and gave presentations on the immigration propositions in CA and AZ, which were current events at the time. Other texts used included Frontera, The Circuit and Becoming American.
Lafayette has special collections with related content, including protest posters on anti-immigration policies, and these are used as teaching materials.
Students produced a document: 10 Things Every US Citizen Should Know about Latin American Immigration. Her students held an “Immigration Week,” and worked to get the campus community to think about human rights issues and immigration.
The co-teaching partnership brought the students into the library and lead to them telling their friends. The other professor feld that better quality assignments were turned in. A further outcome was that the students no longer had barriers about going into the library.
David Woken, University of Oregon
Human Rights and Genocide: Leveraging Academic Library Resources to Support Secondary Education
Woken presented on his involvement in a workshop that the University of Oregon hosted for secondary teachers, about human rights and genocide prevention. Lectures exhibits and workshops were conducted for both faculty and high school teachers as part of a grant-funded program.
The program wanted to bring in lots of disciplines to help people think about how they might teach about human rights, and the teacher workshop topics included:
- Gendered violence and impunity: Bangladesh and Mexico
- Teaching human rights in Latin America: problems sources and methods (Woken co-taught with a professor in the History Department
- Art and human rights in Latin America: pedagogical approaches
- The thirst for human rights and the struggle for water in Latin America and Africa
Woken’s workshop covered repressive states of the Cold War era. He built an online guide for university instructors, modified to emphasize open access materials (primarily in English). Both he and the faculty co-teacher wanted students to seek a critical understanding of human rights. For example, Woken highlighted online truth and reconciliation documents, and how to think about the limitations of these documents.
Challenges and Lessons:
- Provide useable information about a range of different cases while not oversimplifying
- Avoid stereotyping
- Deal with complexity of human rights as a concept itself
- Provide teachers information that they can work with and giving them a positive example with which to work
- Working within the restraints high school teachers face
- Not stereotyping the teachers (It turned out that many of the teachers were Latinos, and Spanish language resources could have been useful)
AJ Johnson, UT-Benson, asked Woken if there had been a follow-up from the teachers and if he had promoted the teaching of online primary sources. Woken answered that lots of contacts were made, which has been very positive. He added that there was a trend in common core to encourage primary source reading, and that he did discuss them, including the Archivo Policia Guatemala.
Moderator: Daisy V. Domínguez, The City College of New York, CUNYRapporteur: Peter S. Bushnell, University of Florida
Georgette Dorn, Hispanic Division, Library of CongressThe Hispanic Division in the Development of Latin American Studies : a historical review
Katherine McCann, Hispanic Division, Library of CongressPortraying Latin America : The Cândido Portinari murals in the Hispanic Reading Room
Debra McKern, Library of Congress, Rio de Janeiro OfficeWeb archives in the Hispanic Division
Tracy North, Hispanic Division, Library of CongressThe Handbook of Latin American Studies : a gateway to doing research in the Library of Congress collections
In 1939, the Hispanic Foundation at the Library of Congress was founded with Lewis Hanke as director. He had been at Harvard and brought with him the “Handbook of Latin American Studies” which had begun three years earlier with a corps of contributing editors and support from the American Council of Learned Societies. By 1927, Archer Huntington had provided funds for a first-rate Hispanic collection at the Library of Congress along with funds to support a “curator” or specialist in Hispanic culture.
Lewis Hanke was director until 1951 and during that time special emphasis was placed on building collections in the humanities and the arts. In 1943, the Archive of Hispanic Literature on Tape was begun with Francisco Aguilera as curator. Initially preserving readings by poets from Spain and Latin America it expanded over the years to include Portuguese, Catalan, Francophone (Haitian), Anglophone (Jamaican and Belizean) writers.
Howard Cline was appointed director in 1952 and held the position until 1971. Bringing an emphasis on the social sciences and the pre-Columbian world, he prepared the 18- volume “Handbook of Middle American Indians” as well as a number of other wide ranging publication including “Soviet writings on Latin America” as well as the first “National Directory of Latin Americanist”. In 1956, two important organizations were founded, SALALM (supported by the Hispanic Foundation) and the Latin American Studies Association (LASA). The Foundation hosted the first LASA meeting and housed the association headquarters until 1972. Another important event during the Cline years was the establishment if the Rio Office, with Earl Pariseau, Assistant Director of the Foundation as the first Field Director.
In 1973, the Hispanic Foundation was renamed Hispanic Division and Mary Kahler became the director. A Brazilianist, she oversaw the publication of leadership guides to the Harkness Mexico and Kraus collections of manuscripts.
In 1978, William E. Carter, an anthropologist (from the University of Florida) became Director of the division. The Division continued to support SALALM, LASA, AHA and other organizations. The third “National Directory of Latin Americanists” was also published during Carter’s tenure.
Library scholar Sara Castro-Klaren was the director from 1984 to 1986 and pioneered a library wide exhibition to celebrate the anniversary of Miguel de Cervantes y Saavedra’s “La Galatea”.
Political science scholar Cole Blasier, who helped to found LASA, served as director from 1988-1982 and initiated the automation of the “Handbook of Latin American Studies”. Two specialist positions were also created, Ieda Wiarda for Luso-Brazilian studies and Barbara Tenenbaum for Mexico.
Georgette Dorn became head of the Hispanic Division in 1994 and instigated the retrospective conversion of the “Handbook’s” first 49 volumes into machine-readable format. With support from the Andrew J. Mellon Foundation and the Fundación MAPFRE in Spain, CD-ROMS of the first 49 years were produced in Spain. The Hispanic Division is now beginning to integrate the CD-ROMs into the Voyager system. Dorn also served as the curator of the Archive of Hispanic Literature on Tape after 1970 and recorded 470 writers for the archive. Currently with the help of Catalina Gómez, 50 of the writers will be mounted in the Library’s website.
Cândido Portinari was born in São Paulo into a large Italian family. He started painting at an early age and eventually went to Paris to study. In Paris he met the Uruguayan artist María Martinelli who became his wife. Later in his career, her better knowledge of English helped tremendously.
After returning to Brazil, he began to make a name for himself, and by 1939 had works on display in the Brazilian pavilion at the New York World’s Fair. Most of his subject matter concerned the workers and natural resources of Brazil. By this time, President Roosevelt’s Good neighbor policy was in effect and the Office of Inter-American Affairs sponsored a conference in 1939 to promote cultural exchange within the Americas. When asked to have an exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York, Portinari asked to have as much space as they had given Picasso.
By this time, Archibald MacLeish had been named Librarian of Congress (with some opposition from the ALA since he was not a librarian). With the support of the Hispanic Division and other agencies involved in inter-American relations, photographers, film studios (including Disney), etc. became involved in promoting relations within the Americas.
Although wall decorations had been planned for the Hispanic Reading Room at the Library of Congress, by 1940, the walls were still bare. MacLeish then invited Portinari to paint some murals. Portinari was already familiar with the space. With support from the Brazilian government and $2500 from the U.S. government, work was initiated. Portinari kept the theme to that of the Spanish and Portuguese in America rather than having anything too Avant Garde. There are a total of four murals in the reading room. Unfortunately, this summary cannot include the illustrations shown during Katherine McCann’s presentation which included working sketches, finished murals and other pictures of interest.
Web archiving is a fairly new activity in the library world. Beginning in 2000, the Library of Congress began a pilot project to collect and preserve websites. Then in 2003 the International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC) was formed. The archiving at the Rio de Janeiro Office of the Library of Congress is the first for all of Latin America.
Before a collection is actually archived, a proposal is submitted with the following elements: Sponsor and Custodial Division, Nominators & Reviewers, Scope, Collection Period, Number & Types of Sites, Theme and Selection Plan. Reviewers include outside colleagues. More than one viewpoint is desired. Once a proposal has been made, the nomination has seven criteria to meet: Frequency of Capture, Subject, Justification (e.g., geography coverage), Urgency, Category, Site Owner Contact Information, Permission Plan. One of the first collections created by the LC Rio Office dealt with the 2010 presidential elections. The collection period was easily defined and because of the nature of information gathered, there was often no site owner contact information to be obtained. Information was gathered weekly since website content would change constantly. However, for the collection of Cordel literature, owner contact was required along with permissions since the various sites could be traced to an individual person or entity. As a sidelight, the percentage of Cordel authors who are women, is greater online than in print.
Currently, the LC Webarchives can only be viewed at LC itself. One future topic of interest is serials. These are not all covered by other sources and much work needs to be done to make sure the whole content is preserved.
The Handbook of Latin American Studies (HLAS) has been published since 1936. It consisted of a selective annotated bibliography with introductory essays. The disciplinary coverage was quite broad with changes over times. Contributing editors came from universities and research institutions in the United States and throughout the world. There is now a web site in addition to print volumes.
The contents of the HLAS include: books, journal articles (core list of 350 or so), book chapters, conference papers, web sites, maps and atlases. Publications can come from all over the world. Primary languages covered have been Spanish, English and Portuguese but French, German, Italian, Russian, etc. have also been included.
Even though nearly everything in the HLAS is in LC, not everything in LC is included in the HLAS. All incoming titles from Latin America, Spain and Portugal are considered. Subject headings used for records in print follow the Library of Congress Subject Heading list provided online. There is a close relationship between the HLAS and the research orientation of the Hispanic Reading Room.
Two web sites have begun to contain large data conversion projects. HLAS web started with vol. 49 and has proceeded to work backward. So far vols. 46-49 have been added.
The Library of Congress also hosts HLAS Online. HLAS Online began with vol. 50 and continues with the current issues.
Some of the digitized collections at LC include:
Chronicling America. Spanish language newspapers
Prints and photographs online catalog. Archive of Hispanic Culture
Maps and atlases.
Sound recordings. Hispanic, Latino and Latin American authors
World digital library. Precolumbian manuscripts.
The current web address for the HLAS is: www.loc.gov/hlas
Soon it will be: www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/
Tuesday, June 16, 2015 8:30 a.m. – 10:00 a.m.
Moderator: Adán Griego
Rapporteur: Daniel Schoorl
Introductions for the speakers were made by Adán Griego (moderator); who also mentioned the influence of SALALM members on e-book pricing.
Sara Casalini – Casalini Libri (Italy)
Demonstrated how to access Casalini scholarly e-content at www.casalini.it and described the single title acquisition model and approval selection plans. Both e-books and print books are visible in the Casalini database. Also a new full-text platform launched by Casalini is available at www.torrosa.it
Lluís Claret – Digitalia Publishing
Digitalia, founded in 2007, continues to grow and has launched new products in 2014, which includes new e-book readers, public library products, and a film library. Multiple databases are represented including many product lines with an emphasis on the humanities and social sciences but also adding more sciences. Digital acquired the publisher Calambur Editorial, which was established in 1991.
Fernando Genovart – Ventara García Cambeiro
Ventara continues to focus on academic libraries in the United States while the Argentine publishing industry wants to gain access to the North American market but perpetual access is still a great concern. Discussed disadvantages of e-resources as relating to high prices and ownership of materials and emphasized that collaboration is key to the survival of traditional book vendors and e-resource companies. Advocates for more trust between libraries/librarians, vendors, and digital publishers.
Leslie Lees – E-libros
Framed the talk as a paradigm shift in the information environment as relating to e-books and libraries. E-libros has 30,000 e-books available for subscription or purchase from Latin America and Spain. The ebrary platform is used by elibros and also García Cambeiro, which allows for simple management of content and includes various business models. Elibros has over 600 publisher partners and offers subscription models for different content at manageable units with varying costs. E-libros is now offering 12 subject collections and a newly added Religion and Philosophy collection, as well as a public library collection with 10,000 e-books. There are multiple purchase options including a rent-to-buy model.
Frank Smith – JSTOR
Demand driven acquisition allows for customized profiles and a seamless user experience. In partnership with OCLC, JSTOR offers MARC records and preservation of e-books and e-journals with Portico. JSTOR is currently working with around 80 publishers in Latin America, including Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru; and is in talks with another two dozen publishers in the region. Around 30% of all searches that end at JSTOR content start at JSTOR, so many users are coming in from other resources.
Wayne Bivens-Tatum – Princeton University (religion and philosophy bibliographer)
Improving the user experience and helping make acquisitions easier for libraries is key. Expressed opposition to artificial restrictions on any type of material but with e-books especially and would not advocate for buying single user licenses. Wants the market to be friction free; barriers to e-books can discourage use, this is especially the case in public libraries. E-book vendors must support academic libraries with interlibrary loan (ILL) and chapter level e-book lending should be widely available. Amazon has fostered the myth that e-books should be cheap but equal pricing for print and e-books is recommended. Sales for resources in the U.S. in 2014: 510 million e-books, 568 million hardcovers, and 542 million paperbacks. Notes that e-books are not diminishing traditional sales; consumers still want print.
Moderator: Luis A. González (LG)
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton (JA)
David Magier, Princeton (DM)
Michael Stoller, NYU (MS)
Steven W. Witt, UIUC (SW)
Luis González (LG)’s introduction: Today we witness a roundtable discussion on campus internationalization and its impact on the research library. Our four panelists have been deeply involved in campus internationalization initiatives on their campuses. Jeremy Adelman (JA) is a scholar of Latin American and World History at Princeton and was the chair of the President’s Advisory Committee on Internationalization, about the impact of globalization on the university. As a scholar he is a Latin Americanist expanding into world history and globalization. David Magier (DM) is Associate University Librarian for Collection Development and the acting Associate University Librarian for Research and Instructional Services, acting South Asian Studies Librarian at Princeton, and has also served as director of the Center for Human Rights Documentation and Research at Columbia University. Michael Stoller (MS) is the Associate Dean for Collections and Research Services at NYU’s division of libraries. He came to NYU in 2001 and has been involved in promoting new modes of scholarly communications and has worked with NYU campuses in Abu Dhabi and Shanghai and their 12 global academic centers. He has a Ph.D. in Medieval History from Columbia University. Steven Witt (SW) is head of the International and Area Studies Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and was the Associate Director of the Center for Global and International Studies at UIUC before that. We had in mind a lively, dynamic conversation about this topic, based in a set of questions and a couple of shared readings to have a shared background from which to approach the subject. From time to time we will open up the floor for questions and comments from the audience. First we will ask each presenter to talk about two significant international initiatives at their institutions.
MS: I will mention the initiatives at our global campuses, especially the two “Portal” (Bachelor-degree granting) campuses in Shanghai and Abu Dhabi. It has been challenging to build a support network for these global sites, and to negotiate how we build a campus in different scholarly, political, and cultural context, as well as getting students access to NYU paper materials in a timely manner (within 48 hours). The second initiative would be the development of three digital projects with global scope. First, the Afghanistan Digital Library project digitizing all published material in Afghanistan from its origin in 1871 to the 1930s, the first time that this material has been available publicly in the world, as it had been gathered by individual Afghan scholars. We set up a conservation and digitization lab at the national archives in Kabul and sent staff there. This effort has faced serious military challenges. Second, we developed the NYU Hemispheric Institute’s digital video library to document performance used as a political tool throughout the Americas and to build teaching tools and research tools in conjunction with institutions across the hemisphere. The third and most recent initiative has been the Arabic Collections Online, which has as its goal to digitize as much out-of-copyright Arabic material (25,000-30,000 volumes up to about 1955) so they can be put online to make them publicly accessible. We have worked with Princeton University, Columbia University, Cornell University, the American University in Beirut, and the American University in Cairo. This has meant interacting with people around the world, especially at their Abu Dhabi campus, which spearheaded this project.
SW: I will start first with campus-level internationalization. First has been the rapid increase of international students, especially undergrads, while the graduate student population has stayed consistent. The campus now has the largest number of international students of any public university. Many of them are from East Asia (especially China), often first-generation students, but they also bring different cultural expectations of universities and libraries, and different expectations of what they will do after graduation. The library works closely with our campus international office to make sure someone from the International and Area Studies library is part of every event for international students. This seems to have been a good first step. At the same time the library is serving rapidly growing ESL services and classes, so they are now training their graduate students how to work with these ESL students. We also must think about how we should adjust out international collections to serve these students (do we need to be sure we have adequate primary source materials in East Asian or South Asian languages, for example?). The second point is typical of what many other campuses are going through, that with each new strategic plan we get more new initiatives and goals. One new goal at UIUC is an emphasis on global impact in everything we do, promoting more international research collaboration and more global understanding. This is challenging in the library because the university president and provost are from STEM, on a heavily STEM campus, but area studies librarians are not typically used to working with STEM projects. So we see more Japanese travel and collaboration (my background is Japanese studies) from STEM than from humanities or the social sciences, and librarians must be able to support these types of initiatives.
DM: Here at Princeton the programmatic interest in foreign material and research abroad long pre-dates my work, and is reflected in the library collections. Historically this has been more focused in some disciplines than others. My focus will be in the library rather than broader campus initiatives. Internationalization can mean many different things to different people, from mere lip service to serious brick and mortar engagements (like NYU’s) to the increasingly international campus population. In more traditional area studies projects for the longest time international work was not envisioned as a collaborative endeavor, but instead focused on what we could acquire here at Princeton for our scholars and students. But in recent years I have been putting more emphasis on collaboration with other libraries or institutions in other areas. One example of this is a project responding to an endangered collections scenario in Yemen, a vast collection of manuscripts by a particular minority in Yemen whose identity, political and physical existence, and archives were physically in danger. So an international consortium of scholars and libraries worked with leaders from the group to get training and equipment from Princeton under an NEH grant out to Yemen to work on digitizing private family collections and putting them up on the internet. This project was very collaborative, and we can think of this as technology transfer (computers, cameras, training) and collaborative collections. The second project is the digitization of Latin American ephemera. This is international collaboration because it is starting with Princeton’s forty-five year collection of ephemera from Latin America, which we gathered and then sold in microfilm copies, but has moved to digitizing these microfilms and making them available open access (and so useable in Latin America). To follow up the theme of changing demographics on campus, we are changing services on campus (orientations) and finding students coming to Princeton to get expertise that they will then bring to their home country, often in fields outside typical area studies expertise like politics, policy, international affairs, and especially engineering. We now have to rethink how engineering collects materials in various languages, and get more information on the economics, politics, etc. of engineering, so engineering has now broken from science in the library and is located with our specialists in area studies. This was a deliberate move to foster synergies between global studies and engineering.
JA: Starting off, I am not a librarian so I am commenting from having worked on the design for the overall international plan for the university and as a teacher and scholar using the library. To look at this question “from above,” as departments came to me as the Chief Academic Officer overseeing the globalization of the university for seven years, they treated the library as an afterthought in how they imagined their global ventures were going to occur. I met with DM several times to figure out how we could press the library into the core of how departments and units imagined how they were doing teaching and research in the initiatives they were planning. To pivot to a couple of examples of how we are trying to do this “from below:” people think of internationalization as going out into the world, but libraries tend to be fixed points in particular locations even as universities are being deterritorialized (unless they are creating branch campuses like NYU; Princeton has chosen instead to emphasize networks and partnerships). So I could proliferate the number of metaphors that we draw on to think about the library (“hubs,” “bridges,” etc.). One way I got involved was in designing a MOOC. Princeton was one of the first co-signatories in the formation of Coursera, and mine was the first pilot humanities course, a global history survey taught to Princeton students in this room and broadcast to about 100,000 students worldwide. It took a while to figure out how essential the library was to this, especially the staff. The bigger example is something a few of us have been trying to develop, and that Fernando Acosta [Princeton University] and I have been thinking about with the Latin American ephemera collection is to think about the library radiating out into the world. So working with Fernando I am developing a course based on the ephemera collection, combining it with my research and the outreach work that the Program on Latin American Studies does that brings in Latin American scholars as visiting fellows. These fellows traditionally were not necessarily working with the library. It would be an accident if we had someone apply wanting to work with the ephemera collection, it was not baked into the design of the fellows program. We are now moving to a course that integrates students, the collection, and a visiting scholar working together in collaboration with Fernando and I.
LG: Now that we have done the overview of the programs and have in a way touched on the second question, let’s focus on the challenges that you have faced with these program and the achievements that you have had.
MS: One of the complexities of doing anything global is the pragmatics and practicalities of what’s involved in the process: the hardest part of building a library in Shanghai was getting the books into China while avoiding the censors. We figured out how to do that (we would test censorship by sneaking in material on Tibetan resistance, for example). Some of the biggest challenges are just moving people around in a global world, though we think of the world as being smoothly, effortlessly global, getting a Chinese national living in the U.S. a visa to return to China, or getting a scholar to Dubai who has spoken out about labor abuse, can be quite difficult. Challenges of getting the Afghan digitization and conservation program set up with all of the challenges of negotiating government, security difficulties, etc. We have to work with cultures that get things done in very different ways, with different ideas of what is scholarship, what parts of American culture they do or do not want (how to work in Dubai or Shanghai without it being an imperial project). We in the libraries who have been working with other parts of the world for decades were in some ways ahead of the game. We have learned a lot from exchange programs, LC’s work abroad, etc.
SW: We deal with the challenges of trying to engage more deeply with our campus, especially those in the library working in area studies. We need to show how the library is and has been engaged in area studies, but also to highlight the deep expertise within the library side by side with what a huge capital investment the library has been. We have created an International Teaching Engagement Committee, Antonio Sotomayor [UIUC] is the chair, where we work in collaboration with faculty on campus doing interesting research that might transcend regions or follow on major world events with talks on the topic in the area studies library with local experts (so we had one with about 110 people in attendance about the Ukraine crisis). We call this “Chai Wai,” a South Asian phrase for tea and conversation, and it has been quite a success getting people from across campus and in the community and introducing to the people and resources in the library. We also did another event with our new Associate Provost for International Affairs so this person would know that the library is a central player involved in international projects and so would include us in new initiatives. Essentially we showed a range of international activities we were doing, ranging from work with engineers at Kyushu University to intense involvement of the libraries in UIUC’s international policies. We also put together a GIS map of the librarians’ travel internationally over the last year, which shows so much activity (conferences, research, collections trips, consultations, etc.) all over the globe, and how we are a part of dynamic campus international projects.
DM: I will try to briefly focus on a couple of challenges we have faced of different types. We had to face almost cinematic challenges with the Yemeni project, involving a conflict zone, the fact we couldn’t bring the Yemenis to the U.S. because of visa problems, we couldn’t send our digitization experts and metadata cataloging experts to Yemen because the State Department wouldn’t allow U.S. citizens to go there. We had to meet through our partner in Berlin, but once the digitization tools got to Yemen we had a range of problems we never anticipated. How do you get the data (high-resolution TIFF images of manuscripts along with initial metadata created by the librarians in that country) back to where they are going to be placed on the internet (Princeton)? We cannot fit enough information on a disc, we need a hard drive, but those needed to be shipped and all international shipping agencies shut down in Yemen. The internet was no help, internet in Yemen couldn’t handle that much data. Even the U.S. embassy couldn’t move the data we needed. This meant one time needing to send a $60,000 replacement camera through a friend of a friend of a friend traveling as a student going to Yemen through Berlin, etc. Other challenges arise in the sphere of moving content, allowing scholars and students access to content when abroad. For example, the Princeton Global Seminars abroad with Princeton students and scholars co-teaching and working with students in host countries have problems because while Princeton affiliates can access library material, non-Princeton participants do not get that access, which limits the collaboration they want to have with host institutions. We had to work out how to get around this commercial limitation on the flow of information. Another limit has to do with interlibrary collaboration/sharing, where many vendors limit our ability to lend internationally (we can ILL in the U.S. but not abroad, which limits international collaboration possibilities).
JA: I could tell more stories from getting things into MOOC platforms, which libraries have trouble with. Speaking as faculty, the faculty have difficulty thinking of the library inside of what we do. The “natives” think of the library as a place they go to get the volume they need, and most don’t realize that their digital materials come through the library, they think of JSTOR as this disembodied space that they go to that has all of this journal content. The conversations I would have when I was provost with faculty about how they design a project and I would mention the work this would bring to DM here, it had not occurred to them, and that is a big problem. I was not successful in expanding this understanding, so my goal has been to further the conversation through example, showcase models where the library is baked into the teaching and research they do. We will see how that goes. There are incredible practicalities, but also major conceptual issues, a mind-shift, that are at stake, and there has been a lag on campuses about that.
LG: That’s the point of this panel, to see how teaching faculty’s perspectives and librarians’ perspectives can dialog, to see how we can support the work that you do. Perhaps at this time we can entertain some questions or comments from the audience.
Barbara Tennenbaum (Library of Congress): JA, can you give us an example of where a “mind-shift” needs to take place.
JA: I am challenged on this, I can say faculty treat the library as a passive and not an active agent, particularly because the vocabulary and “grammar” of internationalization sees the library as a fixed space, even though it is not, while everything else is to be put into hyper-mobility. We have created a unit within the History Department called the Global History Lab dedicated to new models and experimentation in teaching and learning in which the library is part. The library is part of the redesigning of the MOOC, and the Lab will put up some of the resources for my collaboration with Fernando using the Latin American Ephemera collection. I think maybe five years from now we will have some examples of where the library is an integral part of what students encounter in the university rather than an afterthought.
DM: A mindset that I think should change, and that would lead to good results, is a faculty member who is going to be in country X for research will think of “their” librarian as a person who will get them a specific object. But if their librarian is an area studies librarian, or the relevant librarian for their subject as an area specialist, they would realize they have lots of contacts with librarians and archives in the country where they are going. The faculty doing research think they know everything about the libraries and archives they need to visit, how to get what they need when they are there when in fact they only have a piece of the information and the relevant librarian would know a lot more.
JA: To jump in, the worst infractions are not from the faculty, they are from the graduate students, that is where you really see the missing conversation.
SW: To expand on the World History Lab idea, UIUC founded its Slavic Research Lab in 1974 with State Department support. Since then slavicists from around the world come there, and all of those researchers work one-on-one with a Slavic Studies librarian before they come, while they are there, and after they leave. It remains powerful even as the State Department has been cutting back on research support in Slavic Studies/Russia. UIUC would like to try to get similar projects in other areas, but this kind of center took generations to come together.
MS: When NYU’s scholars travel around the world, they expect their librarians to move with them. We had this pipe dream of effortlessly moving books around the world, which we can sort of do but it is expensive ($60 to send a book overnight to Abu Dhabi). We have found many faculty who go to work at Abu Dhabi or Shanghai build/gather data then assume they will effortlessly get that data into their high-performance platforms, and do not realize the challenges of moving data (it is hard to stream video between New York and Abu Dhabi, for example). Also, they do not understand that U.S. copyright does not travel with them, and wonder why they cannot post a chapter or article for students when they are in, for example, Germany (where fair use rights are less strong than in the U.S.). On the other hand, less restrictive copyright in Arab countries (where copyright goes up to 1955, or even 1970 in some cases) allowed NYU to go much farther with their digitization projects than they could in other countries. Librarians are especially well equipped to understand these kinds of issues, and to prepare faculty for the practical challenges they will face in other countries.
LG: The third question is about a somewhat contradictory phenomenon. We have a growing population of international students, new international campuses like NYU’s, but at the same time there is evidence that U.S. social science is increasingly parochial. Are we becoming globally parochial, or parochially global?
MS: A contrast I often make is that in the early years of the Cold War the U.S. government rationally decided that it was good for Americans to know more foreign languages, to foster research and education in international studies (PL480, Title VI, etc.), but since 2001 the trend seems to have gone in the opposite direction. American universities have been passionate about international research and education, but the funding and infrastructure is not there. This “rational” response is gone, so we are going “international” without the infrastructure that the government and foundations like Ford or Rockefeller provided.
SW: I do not want to be cynical, but I would point out that Title VI was a Defense initiative responding to Sputnik, and the second biggest influx of government cash to area studies through Title VI was under George W. Bush. The animating force of area studies scholars is a desire to know more about the history or politics or culture of a people/country/region/etc., but the motivation of funders is to build a security wall around the U.S. Our scholars’ motives are different from their funders, so one person’s internationalization is different from another’s. Some funders are thinking that technologies can stand in for internationalization, Google can translate texts and we can rely on outsourced support from the countries we want to know about.
DM: This is a depressing part of the conversation, and I’m afraid I have to add to that depression. The motivation of international studies support has often been the need for material NOW, to be used now, and that is where assessment is these days, which has the implication of the destruction of the research library in the long term. To build a good research institution you need a base of material available for people to build on, even if it is not being used now. Within universities themselves (not just among outside funders) we see that short-term thinking, with universities undermining their own research. The “50,000 feet” view sees foreign language material as “low use,” but studies (Schadl and Todeschini “Cite Globally, Analyze Locally” for example) have shown that, if you look at the research being done locally, you see what the researchers are actually using. We have to convey this perspective to those who are looking at the library solely from that “50,000 foot” perspective.
MS: This thinking is in the library profession itself, as well, where we hear people refer to books as an “under-performing asset class.”
JA: That sounds like my hockey team.
MS: When I started evaluating library collections in 1985 a heavily used item was one that had been checked out once in the last five years. At Columbia University in the 1990s we managed a major off-site storage shift by using 1972 as the cut-off to send an item to storage, and we managed to move about 300,000 items off site, and that doesn’t mean that they aren’t valuable, either. But somehow that notion, that these items are not valuable, has made its way into the profession and I find that heartbreaking.
JA: I am not so pessimistic, I see a paradox where we have a mix of globalization and localization growing and complementing each other, going both ways. I can now teach from my laptop out to distant corners of the world. However, a problem I would underline is in the social sciences, the drift to thinking digitization and creation of large stores of data, frequently hosted in libraries, is a solution to our social problems, and therefore they do not have to move or have the encounters that are essential to internationalization.
DM: Another problem related to that is that this data is content, and someone has to host and distribute it. Most of the access to data is limited to the hosting institution and cannot be shared with others. How many duplicated collection of the same expensive, hard-to-maintain data can you create?
JA: Well, one effect of the paradox is stratification among globalizing institutions. Speaking as an economic historian, globalization always produces more global inequality, and libraries are exhibiting this.
LG: The fourth question is specifically about SW’s co-written article “Mapping Academic Libraries’ Contributions to Internationalization.” Can you briefly summarize your argument?
SW: The American Council of Education (ACE) does a survey of campus internationalization every five years, but their last one had not a single question about libraries, so some colleagues and I took ACE’s survey, modified it, and sent it out to libraries at selected four-year institutions, with ACE’s blessing. We got a decent response rate and learned that libraries are not on universities’ strategic plans for internationalization, and libraries are not thinking about how they can foster international work.
LG: One of the findings of the piece is that academic libraries have been doing a lot in many areas, from instruction to work with international studies programs to building collections to supporting high-level faculty research, but that work is not known at the high levels by people who set budgets and priorities for universities. How can we be better advocates for research libraries as equal partners in initiatives on our campuses?
DM: My experience is that university administrators see librarians coming and they hide because they know they are there to advocate for something (more money, etc.). That advocacy needs to be done by the libraries’ constituents, especially the faculty, so people like JA need to talk about the library with administrators. Librarians advocating directly to administrators for themselves does not work.
MS: For administrators faculty are the life of the institution. Administrators are far more likely to listen to faculty than librarians, so they need to speak on the library’s behalf. Librarians sound self-serving to administrators. If we do our job well faculty will speak on our behalf, if we do not they will complain about us. It is easier in humanities and social sciences than in natural sciences to do that advocacy.
JA: That’s the problem of public goods in the United States in general, the library is a dramatic example of the non-acknowledgment of the public goods that allow you to pursue private passions. The Council for International Teaching and Research which I founded at Princeton which oversees the process of Princeton’s globalization put in all of its calls for initiatives that create global partnerships a specific bullet that asks faculty to indicate how their project involves library resources and staff, but the proposals we received over my six years on that council never addressed that bullet because they don’t see the library in their work. The library has been successful at deterritorializing itself, but now the faculty don’t see what the library does. There is a narrative to be told about what it takes to run a twenty-first-century library and it needs to be brought to the attention of administrators and faculty. It’s very typical that ACE left the library out.
DM: So we’re victims of our own success.
MS: Some have said librarians need to explain to people how difficult it is to run a library and how complicated they are, but like with figure skaters you want to work with the one that makes it seem effortless.
LG: We have time for one question or comment from the audience.
Alison Hicks (University of Colorado, Boulder): One thing that hasn’t been talked about here is teaching and learning. Can you address teaching and how the library works in that?
JA: For my MOOC, we wanted the library active beyond the course packet or the reserves reading room, to be visible and involved so students saw how it provided the materials they used in the class, and we found that very hard. I also learned a lesson about how much could be done through the changing nature of the classroom itself, as a collaborative and interactive space rather than one where I am the teacher and the students are passive learners. The library plays a very cool role in this, Princeton’s ephemera collection can help to really change how we see the classroom works itself. I had taught in the Firestone Library, but we had not gotten hands-on with materials and broken stuff down. Having talked with science faculty about this, I see that the library can be a lab for humanities and social science students.
MS: As the university is more global, students don’t understand how much the globe is full of people who speak so many languages. Students come from high school without the linguistic skills to deal with these global topics; for example, they need to read Japanese to talk about attitudes of Japanese people to US in WWII, and don’t understand that.
SW: We are finding that with new global, interdisciplinary courses librarians have more opportunities to co-teach. In our new global studies minor there were several courses that librarians co-designed and co-taught. This is a trend that they embrace and will continue to do so.
LG: Thank you for coming today and sharing your thoughts on these interesting topics.
June 17, 2015, 8:30 am-10:00 am, East Pyne 027, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
Moderator: Lynn M. Shirey, Harvard University
Rapporteur: Joseph Holub, University of Pennsylvania
Jill Baron, Dartmouth College
& Fernando Acosta-Rodríguez, Princeton University
Divide and Conquer Brazil: A New Approach to Cooperative Collection Development within the Borrow Direct Consortium
Rebecca K. Friedman, Princeton University
Ivies+ Art & Architecture Group: Tackling Contemporary Art Publications from Latin America
Thomas Keenan, Princeton University
Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union and the Challenges of Inter-Consortial Cooperative Collecting
Darwin F. Scott, Princeton University
The Borrow Direct Contemporary Composers Cooperative Collection Plan
Jill Baron (Dartmouth) and Fernando Acosta- Rodríguez (Princeton) described the agreement of a number of Borrow Direct libraries to share coverage of the academic publishing output of Brazil. The focus on Brazil stems from the country’s status as the largest Latin American country, the ninth largest publishing country in the world, and a growing interest in Brazilian studies. The libraries’ major Brazilian vendors have estimated that the country produces approximately 5,000 academic (or titles of interest to academic libraries) titles annually. Meanwhile, an analysis of Borrow Direct holdings using OCLC showed that Harvard, which acquires the largest number of Brazilian titles of all members of the Borrow Direct group, has been capturing about half of Brazilian titles. The numbers were compared to peer institutions, including New York Public, Texas Austin, and the Library of Congress, and they were found to be far fewer than those acquired by the University of São Paulo. Overall, US libraries do not approach comprehensiveness in their Brazilian collections.
The Brazil Borrow Direct group participants include Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Duke, Harvard, Princeton, the University of Chicago, the University of Pennsylvania, and Yale. The group aims to increase the diversity and depth of their combined Brazilian book collections, improve coverage of small publishers, reduce lacunae and redundancy, and make long-term commitments to the program. It does not specifically aim to reduce duplication, however. Each institution commits to working with a vendor of its choice (there are effectively two major vendors for Brazilian academic books) to cover a specific state or group of states. The group felt that using more than one vendor will help support the diversity of their acquisitions and, in any case, the freedom to use a preferred vendor was an incentive for each institution. Vendors provided estimates on academic publishing and costs for each state. For each state the library will acquire all books of an academic nature that fall within agreed upon subject limits (primarily monographs in the social sciences and humanities), although libraries are free to collect beyond those boundaries. Only the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo are excluded from the agreement, since these are the two largest publishing centers of the country and their output has been more consistently acquired than other cities, states and regions. The libraries had to make estimates of what they would be able to spend as well.
The Borrow Direct Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for Brazil was signed in 2014; all libraries agreed to start collecting from their state(s) starting with 2015, but were free to acquire earlier years. The libraries are committed to good preservation practices, including replacing lost or damaged items. It is still too early to assess the success of the program, and there are some concerns about the potential for cataloging backlogs.
The Brazil project has taken its inspiration from a number of other collaborative collection activities undertaken by Borrow Direct librarians. Rebecca Friedman (Princeton), who is Assistant Librarian of the Marquand Library of Art and Archaeology and Librarian for the School of Architecture Library, explained the details of the 2012 agreement developed by the Ivies Plus Art and Architecture Group. Collaboration was impelled by the realization that no one collection could keep up with an increasingly globalized art scene, and collections data showed slow growth collecting outside traditional areas. They sought to expand their collections beyond the art of North America and Western Europe. The first initiative of the group has been to focus on the visual arts since 1975 in Latin America, as each of the five participating institutions (Columbia, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Princeton, Chicago) took responsibility for individual countries. Their evaluation was that Latin America represented a less complicated first step in collecting outside traditional areas than, for example, Africa. The focus has been on contemporary art. They excluded architecture and design, which are more difficult to divide by country. The country(ies) chosen by each library is generally consistent with the already existing focus of the library.
A number of the libraries were already using Karno Books for their Latin American acquisitions, but they are investigating other vendors in order to diversify collections, including using more than one vendor (contrary to current trends) for the same institution. Collective responsibility is a positive aspect of the project, but there are some questions about to how to adapt to the addition of new members. There is also a question whether this group is best situated for covering Latin America. For example, it would be helpful to compare holdings to some known for the strength of their Latin American collections: the Museum of Modern Art, the Houston Museum of Fine Arts, the University of Texas-Austin – and it might make sense to work with one or more of those libraries.
They used the Borrow Direct Music group as a model in composing the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). Each group member commits to an internal annual report. The members are committed to timely acquisitions and preservation, but there are cataloging challenges and a need to track initiatives. Assessment at this juncture is difficult, and they need to develop metrics for evaluation. Meanwhile, web archiving is another likely project for the group.
Thomas Keenan (Princeton) described the collaborative activities of librarians in what is known as the SEEES (Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies) fields. The area covered includes 27 nation states and 28 major languages (from eight different language families) and corresponds to the area of the old Soviet Union and the Soviet bloc. It is difficult for any one institution to cover such a wide area, and the difficulty is compounded by the fact that the focus of the librarians and the collections has typically been Slavic or Russo-centric. As research interests in SEEES change, including more interest in areas where non-Slavic languages are spoken, collections are unable to keep pace. There is a need to collect in languages other than Russian, especially the non-Slavic languages, and to focus on low-demand items and free up those that collect idiosyncratic materials. Some of this interest comes from students from the old Soviet republics or from Eastern Europe who want to work in those areas and in those languages. Russo-centric scholars, too, sometimes develop interest in non-Russian topics.
Keenan said that when he came to Princeton two years earlier, there was already discussion of collaborative activities to encourage more specialized collecting and reduce redundancy. The BorrowDirect SEEES group has been in discussions, but have not yet been able to initiate an agreement, in part because of the many variables involved, including personnel changes. As BorrowDirect increases its membership, a single copy distributive plan is no longer sufficient (the goal would be 2-3 copies within the group).
The discussion occurred not only in Borrow Direct, but in other cooperative platforms, such as ReCAP, the Research Collections and Preservation Consortium (which includes a storage facility located near Princeton) shared by Princeton, Columbia University, and the New York Public Library. Plus, the Cornell-Columbia shared bibliographer experiment had been underway since 2009. It has been easier to work within the smaller group, which came up with a single copy plan for lower demand monographs for the four institutions (NYPL, Princeton, Columbia, plus Cornell). Higher demand items published in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and parts of Ukraine are excluded from the single copy plan. The program also employs a lead-institution model, so that the institution with a strong collection and/or a high level of scholarly activity will acquire the bulk of titles in a specific area. For example, New York Public Library, because of its historically significant Baltic collections, collects most monographs originating in the Baltic republics. Two libraries have also cooperated on some subject areas of interest to both (e.g., archaeology shared between Princeton and Cornell).
There has also been SEEES cooperation within MaRLI (Manhattan Research Library Initiative), which is a project of the New York Public Library, Columbia University Libraries, and New York University Libraries, that seeks to expand collections.
A major challenge in all collaborative ventures is to produce an MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) that can satisfy all institutions – a handshake is not sufficient – the administrations and general counsels. Despite the larger size of the Borrow Direct group, it offers a shared discovery and delivery mechanism that does not obtain for ReCap and the MRL initiative. For the moment cooperation with Borrow Direct partners will be conducted informally, and there is consideration of bringing in Yale and Brown on discussions with Columbia, Cornell and Princeton.
Darwin Scott (Princeton) described the Borrow Direct Music Librarians Group, which pioneered the model for subsequent Borrow Direct collaborations. There was a strong foundation for the project in the Music Library Association, which includes regional groups. Scott also sees a predilection for collaboration among music librarians that comes out of the experience of musical performance. Borrow Direct librarians began meeting at the MLA as early as 2004-2005, and later decided to focus on contemporary (post 1975) music, with particular emphasis on second-tier composers, whose work had been duplicated in many cases, or not collected at all. They had found that nearly every library was buying the same works by a second-tier composer, but none acquired the composer’s other works. Thus, it was decided that each library would collect specific composers comprehensively.
Between 2009 and early 2012 the group put together a list of ca. 1500 composers, most active after 1975, and used approvals with Theodore Front and Harrassowitz to implement the collecting strategy. Scott emphasized that this cannot work without a cooperative vendor. In 2011 the group accommodated Harvard and MIT as they joined Borrow Direct, and in 2013 the University of Chicago and Johns Hopkins (with Peabody and its extraordinary scores holdings) joined and, later, Duke.
The Memorandum of Understanding of 2012 specified the collecting of scores by 20th and 21st century composers. There have been some tweaks since. Some libraries had to cut back their collecting, some composers are collected comprehensively by 3-4 libraries, and younger composers have been added to the list.
In 2013 the group saw the launch of CCWA (Contemporary Composers Web Archive) hosted at Columbia and with Mellon support. The idea for CCWA came from a presentation of Columbia’s Human Rights Web Archive. The composer archiving project fit into the infrastructure already developed at Columbia. Fifty-six sites are already in the archive, which Columbia catalogs in OCLC – and are loaded into the Princeton catalog in turn. A mechanism is in place to fast-track the archiving of websites when composers die. The group is facing how to continue funding, which may involve every member contributing to Columbia’s housing and management.
Scott added a recommendation to the group to let OCLC know how important WorldCat is to collection development work, which would be threatened by OCLC’s new discovery system, a potential disaster for collection development.
Denise Hibay (New York Public Library) praises the reports and reassures Thomas Keegan that the development of the discovery layer for the ReCap collection is proceeding and hopes to have it running in three years. There are new grant proposals in motion that, if successful, can help provide the infrastructure to create a consistent approach to these kinds of agreements. She also has a question for the Brazil project about its stated position that it does not aim to reduce duplication and about the need to preserve unique titles. Jill Baron noted that some are including tags in the catalog records that flag the Borrow Direct items to keep their relative scarcity in mind when making preservation and deaccession decisions. Acosta-Rodríguez added that there is no requirement to add cataloging notes and the language of the agreement is unspecific, but there is an assumption that each institution will be responsible to the group for the materials it acquires. Lynn Shirey pointed out that, if the group sought to radically reduce duplication, it could damage our vendors’ viability.
Miguel Valladares (University of Virginia) said that he was fairly familiar with all the projects except the SEEES agreements described by Thomas Keegan. He asked that, if reaching a 100% collecting level is the objective of collaborative acquisitions programs, how can a small program, such as ReCAP, be adequate. Keegan responded that there was no expectation that the four institutions in ReCAP would approach 100%. It is viewed as a first step, but one part of the plan specifies that no participant is reducing its collecting. In fact, participants are expanding their collections. Working within BorrowDirect can improve coverage further, although Keenan reiterated his belief that BorrowDirect is too large for a single-copy model. Valladares also asked if ASEES (Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies) is similar to SALALM. Keenan responded in the affirmative and added that there is also AATSEEL (American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages), as well as regional organizations.
David Magier (Princeton) added that he does not encourage speaking of a goal of acquiring 100% — or “everything” — of all research relevant publications. He prefers to ask what we can do to expand our collections. We should think of expanding collections, rather than comprehensiveness, as success. There is a question, too, of finding a balance between duplication and diversifying holdings. Any collaborative program must also take into account political issues, e.g., faculty might not accept reducing the collection of duplicates if it means not getting works by one or another author or a specific subject. He also points out that we have to be concerned about overspending in the quest to expand collections. As for preservation, he thinks we should not worry too much: we need to trust in the responsibility of research libraries when making decisions about old, fragile items. He trusts that these institutions will take care of unique items.
Pedro Huayhua (Ventara – Librería García Cambeiro) reminded everyone that the booksellers are participants in the collaborative process. His company is the supplier for a number of the institutions signatory to the Brazil project. He pointed out how the changing book trade environment has affected the vendors’ ability to work within the parameters established by the new agreements. In the past the vendor could sell 30-40 of any one title. In the past ten years 5-7 copies are more typical. He sees BorrowDirect’s goals to be preservation and the expansion of coverage. He suggested that 60,000 books are published in Brazil annually, but only ten percent are useful to academic libraries. The consortium should have those 6,000 books, but the largest library in the group is only acquiring 2500 titles and the group about 4000. It is difficult to acquire the remaining 2000.
Moderator: Bronwen K. Maxson, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)
Rapporteur: Viviane Ferreira de Faria, University of New Mexico
Daniel Schoorl on behalf of Orchid Mazurkiewicz, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI)
Lost in Translation/Traducción/Tradução: Building a Trilingual HAPI
Wendy Pedersen, University of New Mexico
Discovery through Acquisitions: Colonizing WorldCat with WMS
Timothy Thompson, Princeton University
Descrever é preciso: Adding Item-level Metadata to the Leila Míccolis
Brazilian Alternative Press Collection at the University of Miami Libraries
Daniel Schoorl presented on behalf of Orchid Mazurkiewicz. The moderator presented Daniel Schoorl’s biography and Orchid Mazurkiewicz’s biography. They have been working together since 2009.
Daniel introduced the presentation by presenting a short description of HAPI. Last fall HAPI’s new version was launched in English, Spanish and Portuguese and the new indexing is inspired by the American Model.
Daniel provided the description of the 1st version of HAPI online, launched in 1997. He also provided a description of the 2nd version, launched in 2007. As he compared the two versions, Daniel established that the 2007 version of HAPI online, with interface changes in Spanish and Portuguese, had the same to offer in terms of subject headings plus the terms in Spanish and Portuguese as the version of 1997, redirecting to the English subheadings. They added a new heading and also modified all headings.
Then, Daniel moved on to presenting the new version, which is also trilingual. This version allows for the trilingual search with autocomplete prompts. It also has a smaller amount in French, German and Italian.
The presenter stated that the way people used HAPI drastically changed, thus the trilingual version change was driven by a desire to provide greater content accessibility to Spanish and Portuguese users. According to the presenter, the new HAPI provides Spanish and Portuguese translations of the main subject headings. Apart from being trilingual, the major shift in this new version involves translations of complete subject thesaurus, making it now possible for trilingual subject searching. Thus, in whichever language version, it will seek all the three languages versions of the subject heading. You can search any of the subjects in one language – autocomplete prompts – and you will see the subheading in any of those languages.
As their work showed, the real shift resides in doing away with English as a dominant language and creating this trilingual subject file, with translations of all subject headings and subdivisions. Considering the international standards for developing multilingual thesauri and, when we discuss these standards, there are basically three types of issues to be addressed: administrative, linguistic and technological. The creation of a multilingual thesaurus involved providing equal treatment of all languages. It should be a fully developed thesaurus, structured with all semantic relationships as prevalence, affinity and hierarchy. The idea to create this was to build a thesaurus in each language without reference to the terms or structure of an existent thesaurus. In this sense, the source language becomes the dominant language with a result of the target languages adequately reflecting it (the dominant one) in the target cultures. As a monolingual thesaurus is always culturally biased, the straight translation might be considered a form of cultural imperialism. It’s a management decision, and often the choice made is to use the already existing thesaurus for obviously economic reasons. There is an English thesaurus with a number of translations for main terms, but when it comes to terminology, when languages have equal status, every preferred term in one of those languages should be matched by a good one. Thus, there are decisions to make to avoid literal translations from the source language into meaningless expressions into the target language.
The presenter reinforced the importance to take the following issues into consideration: prevalence issues (for instance, when the target language does not contain a term that corresponds in meaning to the source language) and technological issues (because a developer might say that, when it comes to technology, almost anything is doable and it is just a question of what you can afford). In the light of such considerations, their project aimed at the creation of a text structure that could provide the maximum flexibility that they could afford.
In 2013, a new editorial platform for HAPI was created: HAPI Central. The system completely transformed the way that data and the editorial process were managed. Daniel showed the record for political campaigns with Portuguese and Spanish translations. Since the indexing was done into only one language, there was the need to identify terms in every language and apply them separately, but at the same time it allowed for multilingual searching and across all three languages as the terms are all connected. So for example, someone doesn’t have to be in a Spanish version of the database to successfully perform a search using Spanish subheadings.
According to the presenter, the weakness of the structure is that it offers little flexibility in dealing with issues when there is no one to one equivalence between terms. The data structure is relational, so each index article points to the subject heading record associated with it and the trilingual display is very simple. Daniel showed an example containing the same article in three layers of HAPI Central.
Daniel described the process for creating subheading translations. He also exemplified the complexity of the process by highlighting the existence of numerous headings for specific indigenous groups. The process to create these subheadings involved consulting the Brazilian National Library (Portuguese Language); Mexican National libraries (Spanish Language) and the Library of Congress (English Language) as well as the and lsch-es.org website. Their team had to make decisions among the different options and they come up with headings of their own, they looked for literature they found at HAPI and terminology found on the web. They had a list reviewed by a translation company that uses native speakers. HAPI staff then reviewed the list. Overall the process took 5 to 6 months to translate around 3000 headings, including subdivisions.
Daniel also touched on a couple of issues that posed difficulties during the process. For instance, the presenter mentioned that the standard does not require structure, but the HAPI system does. The presenter used the term land reform (agrarian reform) as an example of duplicating and creating a circular reference through non preferred direct translations. He also used the small business term ‘pequenas e médias empresas’ to demonstrate the comprehensive approach of HAPI to the translations. Another example is the case of ‘biomass energy’ (biofuel and biogas) whose translation (‘biocombustíveis’) in the HAPI update is supported by crossing information with the Brazilian National Library. In another example, they decided to use the Spanish term ‘comunidad andina’ as the preferred heading instead of using the original term ‘Indian community’ in the old system. It was advantageous to change the original heading to the English version, now there are three different versions of the term and they found all references associated with the term.
The presenter closed with a brief overview of what is ahead for HAPI. With a browse subjects option, one can search for different keywords and see the preferred or used headings as well as redirect for non-preferred terms (eg: from Healthcare to Health).
Wendy Pedersen, University of New Mexico
Discovery through Acquisitions: Colonizing WorldCat with WMS
Wendy Pedersen was introduced by the moderator and presented her biography.
The presenter introduced the topic of the presentation by defining WMS – WorldShare Management Systems: a web/cloud-based system that no longer requires a local server, filing updates nor overlay docs imports. WMS was acquired for a consortium of 17 libraries to replace III Millennium, which was client-based and maintained on servers at UNM.
According to the presenter, the change to WMS has required the UNM librarians to internalize certain changes to the vocabulary of acquisitions and cataloging. Wendy used a comparative approach to provide the correspondence of vocab between the old system and WMS. For instance, Integrated Library Services platform (ILS) is now Library Services Platform (LSP). Another change regards the transition from having a catalogue record to utilizing metadata instead. Also, in the new system, receiving is cataloging and cataloging is receiving.
As Wendy pointed out, when it is necessary to make an order, one performs a search in the backend interface, discovering items and searching WorldCat. The system comes up with various options and, with some luck, the item will immediately be available in WorldCat. And, once the item is found, one can just add it to the order. Moreover, the acquisition ordering staff are trained to pick the best record, and it is very much like copy cataloging. According to Wendy, there are several things that the new system allows the acquisition ordering staff to do, for instance: they can add it to a purchase order, apply a template when necessary, add fun, change the process entirely from zero to monograph, put in the shelving location if it is known, etc. However, WMS will not provide information regarding the date in which the book/item was actually received. Because the term ‘receiving’ means something else in WMS, Wendy and her team had to think of other ways to express it, especially when the physical pieces came into the building. As the situation surfaced at times, they called it ‘checking in’.
Wendy stated that, in the catalog, the receiving function actually pulls up the record and gives you a code number. Thus, when you put in the barcode and hit enter, you are in the catalog and you are done. From then on, Wendy walked us through the process of changing the location of an item in WMS if need be. She also explained how to verify whether the record being displayed is correct or not. The presenter also showed that the system allows for messages to be added as short or longer local Public notes. Hence, the presenter was able to demonstrate a few tools of WMS, and possible “hiccups”, showing how easy it is to navigate the system.
In the next segment of the presentation, Wendy pointed out that difficulties might arise when Latin American books do not have a record on WorldCat. As her statistics showed, 25% of the works received on approval plans from Latin America are not found in WorldCat at the time of receipt. The lack of such records hinders the generation and payment of approval invoices; and the creation of a purchase order. Thus, in order to be added to a purchase order, each title needs to exist in WorldCat. There is no such thing as a temporary or masked record since WMS is Live! So, the presenter provided an example of how to go about making an item/book discoverable in case its record is not available.
The presenter highlighted some results based on UNM’s catalogers’ experience since WMS was implemented – about a year ago. Among these results, the presenter stated that her team has created over eleven hundred records for Latin America monographs that were not otherwise ‘discoverable’ yet. She also mentioned that, with WMS, the UNM Latin American Technical Services team can make better original contributions to WorldCat in the ordering process, from the creation of more substantial K level records to the subsequent upgrade to full level by their own catalogers after the backlog has aged 2-3 months. Wendy also mentioned that, in the past year, over 1,100 Latin American works have been made discoverable to the broader community via UNM’s use of WMS for acquisitions.
The presenter also proposed some takeaways from the application of WMS. On one hand, this system might be good for business since it creates efficient workflows for acquisition of mainstream materials; it streamlines cataloging and item creation processes; it updates catalogs automatically to latest bibliographic enhancements; and it forces discoverability for less common library materials. On the other hand, the use of WMS might not be so good for the catalogers’ profession since its interface is all point-and-click with dropdowns; there is more work for acquisition of less mainstream materials; non-catalogers can alter records or delete holdings; and it populates WorldCat with a certain number of junk records, leaving the professional cataloging to “someone else”.
Wendy closed her presentation on the UNM’s migration to WMS by suggesting further reading of the following articles:
1) Sever Bordeianu and Laura Kohl, “The Voyage Home: New Mexico Libraries Migrate to WMS, OCLC’s Cloud-Based ILS”, to be published in Technical Services Quarterly (v. 32, no. 3).
2) Claire-Lise Benaud and Sever Bordeianu, “OCLC’s WorldShare Management Services: A Brave New World for Catalogers”, Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2014.1003668 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2014.1003668
Timothy Thompson, Princeton University
Descrever é preciso: Adding Item-level Metadata to the Leila Míccolis
Brazilian Alternative Press Collection at the University of Miami Libraries
Timothy’s biography was introduced by the moderator.
Timothy started by disclaiming that the presentation was initially designed to be a “Roda Viva” presentation.
Firstly, the presenter showed an outline of his project about the metadata. The outline was divided into 5 parts: Background; Timeline; Approach; Metadata enhancement and Data Transformation and Analysis.
Thus, Timothy started with the project background by introducing Leila Miccolis, a Brazilian poet and activist whose career in the 70s and 80s was quite productive. The poet was involved in the Zine scene in underground networks during the dictatorship. The collection spreads mostly from the 60s to the early 90s, but there are some recent materials too. It also comprises a Brazilian Alternative Press Collection Publication sample, where works such as ‘Lampião da Esquina’ and ‘Opinião’ can be found.
The presenter read the statement of the mission of the Collection and its description.
Then, the timeline for the project was briefly presented. In 2006, the acquisition, processing and inventory of individual publications phases took place under the guidance of the University of Miami Library. Timothy presented a sample of a pdf, which gave a bit of information about the collection, but did not really make the publication accessible to users. In 2010, the University of Miami and other institutions around the Caribbean were involved in a project called the Collaborative Archive from the African Diaspora. In 2013, the LM collection metadata enhancement was funded by a grant using the Collaborative Archive from the African Diaspora funds and the metadata enhancement focused on the representation of Afro Brazilian identity within LM’s collection.
When explaining the approach to the project, the presenter highlighted the reigning paradigm in archival conventions: more process, less product. This paradigm applies to archivists, who seek to make their collections quickly available for people to have some kind of access to researches that already exist, do not spend a lot of time providing a higher level description of each folder, each piece, etc. The focus is to put the collection out there so people have immediate access to it; and, when they have time, they go back to the files and add to the metadata. Based on insights provided by this paradigm, Timothy described his own experience in working with metadata with minimal resources in a sustainable way. The presenter affirmed that this project may serve as a foundation for a model of metadata handling with limited funding. Thus, the introduction of the concept of Archival Context and Thematic Focus – metadata librarians to complement archival research – was concluded.
In the following segment of the presentation, Timothy provided the Metadata Enhancement Template he utilized in his project. The template had a streamlined metadata format, 54 elements for things like title, creator, contributor, description, publisher, dates – the bare bones, core elements that are necessary for discoverability. They used the pdf inventory as a basis, and split that up into individual records in this template. The template was given to a student to fill in by hand. This work was done 10 hours per week and the student recruited to perform this task was Brazilian and took classes with Professor Butterman for her major in Gender.
The presenter also described the Metadata Enhancement contents. The collection is very large, containing about 120 boxes, focused on thematic approach to African Brazilian identity. They looked for individual poems or articles or special issues that had some relation to or some representation of African Brazilian identity. This was not necessarily systematic, it was skimming the public issues and looking for things, but whenever the student found something relevant, she provided in-depth descriptions for the issues or titles. She would include all the contributors to that issue as well as the contents which were related to their thematic focus (geographic information, etc.) with core metadata that was not available in the inventory. She would also add the role of the contributor to the entry Timothy then showed an example of contributors for a publication.
Timothy presented a breakdown of the Data Transformation and Analysis by showing ‘finding aids’ container list to provide a sample of the entries, with controlled vocabulary provided by the student. The presenter demonstrated how the Archive manager software works and explained that the student created her own controlled vocabulary, what was helpful because the nature of these publications. This is of extreme importance, since there may not have been adequate headings in the Library of Congress subject list, for example. Timothy also pointed out the importance of social network analysis and the relationships in the data. For the presenter, the social networks are fascinating and contribute to the advancement of several forms of resistance, mentioning the Network Graphs in Gephi. The presenter referred to an article that is of interest for everyone who would like to have more technical information about this network graphs: Modeling Afro-Latin American Artistic Representations in Topic Maps: Cuba’s Prominence in Latin American Discourse Digital Humanities Quarterly 7.1 (2013).
The presenter closed his presentation by drawing some conclusions regarding the project outcomes, limitations and a quick demo for the Network Analysis Gephi. As for the outcomes of the project, Timothy highlighted the opportunity to provide enhanced access to individual publications; the rich learning experience the project is (blog post); the opportunity to collaborate with faculty (Professor Butterman); the cultivation of donor relationship (Facebook page shared the project achievements with with Leila Miccolis); the has been a lot of follow up work since her original acquisition; and the opportunity to explore and analyze new dataset. The presenter also pointed out some of the limitations of the project such as the use XForms rather than oXygen; the point that EAD profile (Archon) cannot accommodate enhanced item-level data and the fact that controlled vocabularies have not been reconciled.
As for the quick demonstration of Network Analysis Gephi, Timothy concluded that the software has a powerful analytical tool that connects the information and links it by affinity as is established by its settings. During that demonstration, Ruby Gutierrez from HAPI asked if the software shows where the notes contributors are located. Timothy clarified and showed how the graph works for the African Brazilian Identity and Leila Miccolis project. São Paulo, for instance, is highlighted as having its own network; some authors are identified as LM collaborators. It is a data laboratory that allows you to look at the numbers. There are some different view possibilities, layouts and options to save as PDF, etc. The presenter stated that, by utilizing this tool, one can get a higher level enhancement of metadata that has many different potential outcomes and uses.
● Jessie Christensen from BYU asked Wendy to elaborate on the relationship between acquisition and cataloging. Wendy affirmed she couldn’t give any solid conclusions since the boundaries between cataloging and acquisitions are fuzzier than ever. They have a lot of shelf-ready stuff that comes in already and that has enhanced the disconnect there. The people in acquisitions that are ordering have had to be trained to recognize what is acceptable record and what is not an acceptable record, and they don’t know how well that is really going. She affirmed that they get stuff in cataloging that needs attention. And, through some exemplification, Wendy said that everyone is trying to find out their roles.
● Bark Burton from Notre Dame asked Wendy about the K Level record creation. Wendy said that she starts from scratch, puts it in the back log, lets it age for about 2 months and then goes back to it to perform the enhancement. Probably a quarter of the books she created in the K Level record book, she had to come back and enhance them, either completely or to finish off what somebody else started on top of what she had done.
● Erma (…) from MLA asked Daniel about the timing of the project he presented. Daniel described the timeline and Ruby added to it. Daniel elaborated on the language (Portuguese, Spanish) records being searchable at some point.
● Ruby Gutierrez from HAPI asked Daniel if the English version will pull up the records for the Portuguese language. Daniel answered that they will.
● Timothy asked Daniel about working with translation companies and ongoing translations. Daniel said that, in the past, translation companies were involved in the HAPI online project; but, now, they prefer to recruit in-house by actively adding native Portuguese and native Spanish speakers to the staff.
● Timothy asked Daniel about making the thesaurus and dataset open to download in order to provide collaboration. Daniel said that, in the future, it is a desirable move. Ruby elaborated on the answer, using the example of the old website being open, but not sustainable. She said it is possible to do dumps and that Orchid would be willing to develop it. The databases is MYSEQUEL.
● Timothy asked Wendy who the vendors she works with are and if they are approvals and if the vendors provide cataloguing information for her records. Wendy listed the vendors and what sort of info they provide to aid her creation of records.
● Timothy asked Wendy if it becomes the master record. Wendy responded that it does and that people should be upgrading the record she creates.
● Diana Restrepo from a library in Colombia talked about the experience in cataloging in Colombia and how they are tackling buying and cataloging books from all over Latin America. Ruby asked where they are getting their terms from. Diana talked about the process (multi-meetings, policy decision, develop own terms).
● Daniel asked Wendy: What kind of training is provided by LCLC? Wendy says that they are very supportive and provided great training. The mechanics of the system was different from a 30-year usage of database and both acquisition people and circulation people received quite a lot of training.
● Brenda Salem from the University of Pittsburgh asked Daniel: What did you do about the additional descriptors in HAPI, as they need a lot of indexing in English. He said that they maintained their policy of keeping them in English. Even though the Portuguese and Spanish headings are for the record view, the English descriptor key words are still appearing. They just maintained that consistency.
Moderator: Teresa Chapa – University of North Carolina
Rapporteur: Alexia Shellard – Susanne Bach Books from Brazil and Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Gabriel Mordoch is a Brazilian PhD student at Ohio State University. It was his first time in SALALM and he presented a paper entitled Os Diálogos das Grandezas do Brasil  de Ambrósio Fernandes Brandão e os cristãos-novos no Brasil colonial. The work discusses three main questions: who was Ambrósio Fernandes, why has his text remained important and what was distinct about this narrative, compared to other colonial writings. Ambrósio Fernandes Brandão was a New-Christian and in his “Dialogues” – as opposed to most of other contemporary texts – there is not a clear allusion to traditional Christian values. He structures the narration as a dialogue between Brandoni and Alviano, in which the former defends the greatness of the colony while the latter offers more criticism. The text presents rich descriptions about landscape, natural diversity, weather, etc. Mordoch emphasizes the importance of Jewish culture for the development of American colonies and works on two hypotheses: either Brandão adopted the strategy of refuting and avoiding classical Catholic allusions in his “Dialogues” to reinforce his Jewish identity or he was performing an embryonic kind of secular speech reflecting the perceptions of someone who, removed from ebrew origins for generations, hadn’t been integrated into Catholicism as a religion.
Ricarda Musser has a PhD in Library Science and History and works at the Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut, in Berlin. Currently, she is involved with three projects related to Portugal, Brazil and Latin-America, one of which was presented in Panel 23, entitled “Immigration Guides as Source Material for Immigration History: The Example of Brazil”. Musser showed numbers and statistics about Germans who left Europe for America throughout the 19th and the first decades of the 20th century. Through the analysis of “immigration guides”, the purpose of the project is to examine quality information such as: conditions of life in the destination, perspectives in the German colonies, as well as details about the weather in Brazil, Brazilian laws related to immigration, etc.
Daniel Schoorl is an Associate Editor at the UCLA Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI) who presented the paper: “Arab Ethnicity in Brazil: An Overview of Recent Literature and Research”. The paper deals with recent literature – published after 2005 – which focuses on or includes the studies of ethnic identity in Middle Eastern-Brazilian communities. Immigration from the Middle East to Brazil has been widely studied as has the successful integration of these communities into Brazilian society. Researching mainly 19th century docs, Schoorl presented two important conclusions: most Arab immigrants went to urban locations, working in different kinds of business and, secondly, most of the Arab population was perceived by Brazilian people as Turkish in times of the declining – but still powerful – Ottoman Empire.
The panel was really very good, evoking interesting questions and problems. Ruby Gutierrez (Associate Editor at the UCLA Hispanic American Periodicals Index) questioned Musser about the position of a socialist regime in regards to slavery, which according to Musser, they intended to abolish. Gabrielle Winkler (Special Collections Assistant at Princeton University Library) then raised the question of nature and indigenous populations on the immigration guides. Although some Germans might have been impressed by the wild nature of Brazil in times of cultural Romanticism, the immigration guides faced both nature and indigenous people as elements to be fought and defeated.
Peter Johnson (from Princeton) wanted to know about immigrant civil organizations, if they existed or not, if they helped or not, and if they stimulated immigration or not, a question which both Musser and Schoorl were able to address: there were migrants networks, and those did indeed help to increase the immigration flows. Winkler asked about the religious pattern in German immigration, while Gutierrez asked about the destinations in Brazil for Arab people. According to Schoorl, the Arab immigrants were spread all over the country, but there were two important poles: the Amazon and the area where Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay have the triple frontier. Lastly, Mordoch was asked about the recent versions of “Dialogues”, which were last published in English and also if the New-Christians had ever returned to their original faith – this question, he said, is still to be researched.
Moderator: Gayle A. Williams, Florida International University
Rapporteur: Jade Kara Mishler, Tulane University
T-Kay Sangwand, University of Texas at Austin
A procura da batida perfeita: The Art of (Collecting) Brazilian Hip Hop
Suzanne M. Schadl & Viviane Ferreira de Faria, University of New Mexico
Borderlands Reinvented and Revisited: Third Space Intersections of Portuguese Language Literature in Print and Image
Sócrates Silva, University of California, Santa Barbara
Samba, choro, baião: Documenting Early Brazilian Sound Recordings at the UCSB Library
Donald M. Vorp, Princeton Theological Seminary Library
Studying Brazilian Christianity in Princeton
T-Kay Sangwand presented on collecting Brazilian hip hop at the University of Texas. She spoke about the historical trajectory of hip hop and identified trends and gaps in the scholarly conversation. T-Kay explained different ways in which she has obtained Brazilian hip hop materials for the library. She has had success working with vendors. LC Rio had been particularly amenable to acquiring a subscription to “Rap Nacional,” a key Brazilian hip hop journal. Through acquisitions trips T-Kay was able to attend hip hop shows, buy directly from artists and access the underground hip hop scene. T-Kay has worked directly with graduate students and faculty to identify materials of interest. Lastly, T-Kay recognized potential challenges that collecting hip hop presents. She spoke about audiovisual material being published on the internet through blogs, websites, and youtube, as well as important hip hop groups that function primarily on Facebook. She asked, “How can the library capture these types of material and provide access to them?”
Suzanne M. Schadl and Viviane Ferreira de Faria presented on two art exhibitions they curated: “AfroBrasil: Art and Identities” in August 2015 and “Borderlands Reinvented and Revisited: Portuguese Language and Literature in Print and Image” in fall 2015. Viviane explained that they designed the exhibitions with the following users in mind: the academic community, library users, the local community and the international community. Both exhibits were comprised of library collections, including special collections, canonical texts, cordeis, cartoneras, graphic novels, and films. They creatively used the space. Local musicians were invited to the opening reception of the “Borderlands” exhibit. The “AfroBrasil” exhibit included Candomblé altars.
Sócrates Silva presented on two current initiatives at the UCSB Library to document music production. The first, Discography of American Historical Recordings (DAHR), is a database that documents the output of American record companies during the 78rpm era. DAHR includes more than 100,000 master recordings (matrixes). There are 467 Brazilian Victor recordings in the database that were added from secondary sources. In 2012 the USCB Library received a $239,600 grant in order to Catalog 18,000 78s from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, France, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Spain from the 1900s-1960s (the bulk of them are from 1900s-1940s).
Donald M. Vorp presented on the Princeton Theological Seminary Library and their collections. The Seminary Library houses more than a million items and is considered one of the premier theological research centers. In the 1970’s Latin American and Iberian materials started being collected at the Seminary Library. There are now more than 25,000 volumes in Spanish and Portuguese and 1,300 current and historical periodicals from Latin American and the Iberian Peninsula. Donald explained that the Seminary Library has numerous collections of interest for the study of Brazilian Christianity/Christianities. Of Special note are the microfilm collections, such as the Iglesia en Brasil collection. The library also has relevant journals, such as “Estudos Biblicos,” “Revista de Interpretação Biblica Latino-Americana,” and “Estudos de Religião.” Some Brazilian theologians are active participants in the Global Network for Public Theology that was founded at the Center of Theological Inquiry in Princeton in 2007. The Global Network is associated with the “International Journal of Public Theology,” which devoted a special issue in 2012 to “Public Theology in Brazil”.
Jade Mishler asked Suzanne M. Schadl and Viviane Ferreira de Faria if putting together scholarly and popular resources and working with the public at large was an idea born in the library or if it was directly related to a larger university mission. Viviane said that these ideas were generated out of the library. They wanted to make the special collections more accessible, visible and to integrate them. Suzanne said it came out of trying to challenge a healthy collection budget with materials that are primary in scope, and could be utilized by students, community members, graduate students and faculty members. She said that there is an ongoing administrative-level and faculty level conversation at UNM about community engagement.
Carlos Navarro (University of New Mexico) asked if there is hip hop coming out of favelas in Rio. T-Kay said that Baile Funk came out of Rio and is similar to hip hop in some ways. She contrasted the drug trafficking and consumerist lyrics in Baile Funk with more politically conscious hip hop lyrics. T-Kay said that there is some politically conscious hip hop coming out of Rio. There are community centers that are trying to attract members with hip hop.
T-Kay asked Donald if there are music ethnologists or theologians looking at the evangelist messages in Brazilian gospel rap. Donald said he wasn’t aware of any theologians working on that.
Gayle Williams asked T-Kay if she’s seen Cordel Literature that is about hip hop or hip hop that mentions Cordel literature. T-Kay said she’s not that familiar with Cordel literature and isn’t sure. Viviane said that Cordel literature tends to react to everything and she wouldn’t be surprised. Suzanne said that some Samba artists were featured in the Cordel literature in their exhibit.
Viviane asked Donald how he has perceived the ascendance of Evangelism in Brazil with both the people and within congress. She asked if Donald could foresee the election of an Evangelic president within the next two elections. Donald said there are internal conflicts among the Brazilian evangelicals and it’s been interesting to see how one group ascends over the other. He said there are a growing number of evangelicals trying to engage with social realities in Brazilian culture, which leads them to political engagement.
Date: Wednesday June 17, 2015, 10:30 am to 12:00 pm
Moderator: Rafael E. Tarragó, University of Minnesota
Rapporteur: Christine Hernández, Tulane University
Sarah Buck-Kachaluba, University of California, San Diego and Lynn Shirey, Harvard University
The Genesis and Evolution of the Digital Primary Resources Subcommittee
Luis A. González, Indiana University
Archivo Mesoamericano: An International Collaborative Video Digitization Project
Antonio Sotomayor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Digitizing the Conde de Montemar Letters (1761-1799): A Beginner’s Impressions on Multi-Departmental Collaborations and Digital Humanities
The moderator, Dr. Rafael E. Tarragó, begins the session by introducing the panel of presenters and reminding the audience of the rules for the session.
The panel began with the presentation by Antonio Sotomayor about the digitization of the Conde de Montemar letters held by the University of Illinois. Antonio gives a brief background to the project now entering its third year. The Conde de Montemar collection is a large holding comprised of family correspondence dating to between 1761 and 1799 of a noble family of the Peruvian viceroyalty.
The theme of Antonio’s presentation is that of the importance of inter-departmental collaboration in a library digitization project. He begins with the groundwork phase of the project where discussions with several groups of experts were vital to the development of the proposed content and technical execution of the project. These experts included faculty members with expertise in the subject areas that would directly benefit from digital access to the Conde de Montemar letters. Discussions with digital librarians and technical support staff helped to make clear the multitude of models for digital humanities projects and the kinds of questions that need to be asked and answered in order to choose and develop a database model appropriate to the primary sources to be digitized. In the end, Antonio notes that two of the most important questions to be addressed are which disciplines will derive the most benefit from this project and what will investigators need for their research.
Along with these discussions, Antonio notes that he had to do a fair amount of research on the materials themselves and on the literature concerning digital humanities projects, in general. He also discussed the process of evaluating various models taken from other digital humanities projects for use with the Conde de Montmar letters. The goal for the University of Illinois project was always to create a resource that would be something more than just published digital images of letters.
Additionally, collaborations with appropriate departments on campus and off-campus were essential to the project. Care had to be taken not to tread on inter-departmental politics or feelings of territoriality. Antonio notes also that with some aspects of the project there was a steep learning curve and storage space and maintenance for the database needed to be procured and negotiated.
Antonio then goes on to describe the general workflow for the project. The letters are digitized, then metadata records are created, and finally a transcription will be made of each letter. Sotomayor notes that each step entails a series of decisions to be made and funding to be secured. Staff support at each step is critical as well. The digital platform chosen for the project is eXtensible Text Framework (XTF).
Antonio concludes the presentation with a brief overview of the current work on the project. This stage includes interacting closely with the IT department and securing funding to create transcriptions of the letters. Project staff will work with faculty members to assess the digital products created and to help the project team to further develop the digital materials into a teaching tool.
The next presentation was given by Luis A. González concerning the Archivo Mesoamericano project. Luis begins with thanks to the panel organizers for the invitation to present. He introduces the Archivo Mesoamericano as a resource. It is an archive of video materials that is freely accessible online and fully searchable using Spanish keywords. The project is international in two senses: the first, being that two of the partner institutions are located outside of the United States; and two, that the records in the Archivo Mesoamericano are in both Spanish and English and are searchable using Spanish search terms. The institutions involved in the creation of the Archivo Mesoamericano include the University of Indiana and two other partners which are the Institute for the Historia de Nicaragua and Central America (IHNCA) and the Museum of the Word and the Image (MUPI).
Luis continues with a discussion of the history of the project. It began in 2005 when two separate databases CAMVA and CLAMA were merged to form the Archivo Mesoamericano. The consortium of partners included the University of Indiana (CLACS and DLP), CIESAS, IHNCA, and MUPI. Jeffrey Gould was an early founder of the Archivo Mesoamericano as he created the original consortium from a network of protest projects in California. The project was funded with a TICFIA grant.
The goals of the Archivo Mesoamericano project are the following: 1) preservation of a wide range of video content and video sources; 2) dissemination and access to video resources made freely available for educational purposes. The archive’s materials are indexed, annotated, and are discoverable via WorldCat; and 3) to be technologically innovative. An annotation tool was developed at the University of Indiana for use on the video materials in the archive. Although the tool is proprietary, training workshops were provided for all partner institutions. The content of the archive would be of interest to those who study indigenous languages, conditions and conflicts in rural communities, and rural guerrilla conflicts.
Luis then gave a demonstration of how to navigate to the Archivo Mesoamericano webpage, how to enter the database via the browser interface, how to search for video materials, and what kinds of video material a user can expect to find.
Luis concludes with a brief summary of the highlights of the Archivo Mesoamerica which are the following: the Archivo is a searchable digital archive, it is an open access archive, it provides a unique teaching and research resource, titles are currently being catalogued, the Archivo will provide long-term preservation of its content as the University of Indiana will sustain the database, and there is institutional cooperation involved in the development and long-term sustainability of the current database
The final presentation was that of Drs. Sarah Buck Kachaluba and Lynn Shirey concerning the foundations for establishing the Digital Primary Sources Subcommittee within SALALM. Lynn Shirey begins with a brief background discussion. She explains that numerous researchers based at small institutions were having difficulty finding and gaining access to primary resources necessary to their studies. Their needs prompted the start of a project to create a finding aid for primary sources. An early version was drawn up by combining multiple lists, creating a bibliography, and adding webpage links. A sub-committee of two people who would also serve as an editorial board was established and they made an early effort to secure funding and which was subsequently provided initially from SALALM.
The moderator, Dr. Rafael Tarragó and current sub-committee chairman, interjected at this point to add that the sub-committee now numbers at more than 25 people and it held its first official meeting at the current annual conference of SALALM. He gave a brief summary of the results of the first sub-committee meeting and a demonstration of the webpage and current listing of primary resources.
Sarah, Lynn, and Rafael conclude the presentation with a series of needs for how the sub-committee and the current primary source list could be moved forward. These efforts include: help with cataloging and organizing the list; securing more funding; and providing more depth to the current listing of primary sources beyond the immediate needs expressed initially be a select number of researchers. A final comment was interjected by panelist Luis A. González that the current listing of primary sources comes only from members of SALALM and asks whether there would be an opportunity to open it up to materials held by institutions outside of SALALM.
The Question and Answer period began with a comment from Dr. Sarah Aponte of the Dominican Studies Institute directed to panelist Antonio Sotomayor. She describes a “Spanish paleography tool” that is used at the Institute and she has found it very helpful for teaching people how to read paleography. She suggests that it may be helpful to Antonio with his Conde de Montemar Letters digitization project. Panelist Luis A. González of the University of Indiana and moderator Rafael Tarragó of the University of Minnesota affirm the tool’s usefulness.
Diana Restrepo Torres of the Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango poses a question to Luis A. González of the University of Indiana: When you say “searchable” [in reference to the Archivo Mesoamericano], what do mean? Is it searchable only by the title or for content within the films as well?
Luis A. González responds that both title and content are searchable and shows several examples searching on keywords, dates, and places. He explains that the all of the scenes in each film are annotated and catalogued using proprietary software developed at the University of Indiana. The software was originally used to analyze and index folk music videos and has since been re-tooled for use with the ethnographic videos in the Archivo Mesoamericano. One of the reasons for developing this software was to provide multi-lingual access to the materials.
Maria Torres of the Universidad de Puerto Rico poses a question to Luis A. González of the University of Indiana about the language used to create the descriptive texts and subject headings in the videos contained in the Archivo Mesoamericano.
Luis A. González responds that the vocabulary used for the Archivo Mesoamericano metadata was adapted from that used by UNESCO for describing cultural subjects.
Luis A. González of the University of Indiana poses a question to Antonio Sotomayor of the University of Illinois: Antonio, based on your descriptions of letters in bundles and their orientation, what are you thinking of doing [with respect to representing the original physical orientation of the texts on pages of letters].
Antonio responds with a demonstration of the vertical orientation of the texts in one letter, but the spatial orientation of the letter’s texts does not necessarily correspond with the train of thought conveyed in the reading of the letter. A graduate student familiar with the texts of colonial folios was brought in to help decode the structures of the letters. He points out that this is one example of why the Conde de Montemar Letters project must be a collaborative one.
Lynn Shirey of the Library of Congress adds that the project could endeavor to show how the writing in the letters can be re-orientated.
Antonio responds that this could be tricky to do. It shows how essential it is to know well the nature (both physical and content wise) of the materials being digitized in order to best structure the resulting database. He notes that it takes more time to plan a database structure than to actually build it.
Rafael E. Tarragó of the University of Minnesota comments that paper was expensive and very important during the Colonial period, so people would economize when it came to filling the space on pages of paper.
Antonio Sotomayor of the University of Illinois comments that the goal of the project is to capture the whole essence of each letter in reference to watermarks on the papers because this may be of interest to researchers.
Christine Hernández of Tulane University adds that there are visualization tools that can be used in a database of images to convey orientation and position of database items in a series.
Antonio Sotomayor of the University of Illinois replies that the project begins with adding informative essays about the viceroy’s family to explain provenience and structure of the letters and to explain the cultural context of the entirety of the collection.
Rafael E. Tarragó of the University of Minnesota ends the session at 11:45 am.
Thomas K. Edlund, Brigham Young University
The Why’s and Why Not’s of Family History Research: A Professional Retrospective
Rapporteur: David Block, University of Texas
Edlund is currently Eastern European Bibliographer, among other responsibilities, at the Harold B. Lee Library. His academic training includes being a student of the eminent Mesoamericanist, Charles Dibble, but he gave up Aztec studies for “something less violent.’ Genealogy is, as any librarian knows, an extremely popular pursuit. The searches of family history Internet sites are second in number only to those dedicated to pornography.
Surveys asking why people are interested in genealogy most often cite:
1. to learn about who I am; 2. to know my ancestors as people; 3. for posterity.
The traditional methodology is completion of pedigrees, which is in most cases quite a complex mix of culture and history. Uses examples from pre-hispanic Mexican documents (Codex Xolotl) to show how these documents reflect multiple lineages and often include a high degree of inaccuracy and legend. Another limitation of pedigrees is the insistence on tracing only paternal relations and a preference for tracing linearity.
Learning is an activity shared by organisms as simple as jellyfish and as complex as humans. It encompasses forms as variable as simple luck, experience, and reason to communicating a solution across an entire population, e.g. research and publication.
Methods of genealogical research—extrapolation, traditional documentary investigation, and genetic, all of which would optimally include both parenthood and filiations (brothers and sisters).
Molecular testing, the kind currently being popularized by commercial firms (STR), is actually better at demonstrating lack of relation than establishing a relation itself. Deep ancestry testing, UEP, is extremely accurate but also extremely complex and expensive.
In conclusion, Edlund offered that if genealogists seek valid results, they can obtain knowledge of something more than ourselves. The why of genealogy is to transcend the limitations of the present.
Christine Hernandez, Tulane University, offered an explanation for why the people depicted in Xolotl would want to establish their ancestors back into a great time; elite people could demonstrate their connection to some divine ancestry that would solidify their own power. Edlund answered that he understood this desire and added that a number of ancient people, many of them featured in the Bible, used genealogy in this way. But stressed that his presentation was concerned the how, rather than the why of the genealogy.
David Block, University of Texas and rapporteur for the session, thanked Edlund for his challenging presentation, especially so for the recorder, and offered a summary of it along the lines of “an acceptable genealogy is one that is ‘good enough’ to satisfy the researcher.”
TagsAdán Griego Alison Hicks Anne Barnhart archives art audiovisual cataloging Committee Report David Block digitization documentaries Ellen Jaramillo Executive Board Meeting Minutes Fernando Acosta-Rodríguez Fernando Genovart Finance Committee Report Human Rights Interlibrary Cooperation Committee Report John Wright keynote Lisa Gardinier Lluis Claret Lynn Shirey Marisol Ramos Meiyolet Mendez Melissa Gasparotto Melissa Guy Mexico Paloma Celis Carbajal Paula Covington Peter Johnson rapporteur reports Richard Phillips Roberto C. Delgadillo SALALM56 SALALM57 SALALM 58 SALALM58 SALALM59 SALALM60 SALALM61 Sarah Buck Kachaluba Sarah Yoder Leroy Suzanne M. Schadl Teresa Chapa