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Luso-Hispanic Resistance and Resilience: Primary Sources in the Collections of the Library of Congress
SALALM 61, Panel 14, May 13, 2016, 9:00am-10:30am
Moderator: Katherine McCann, Handbook of Latin American Studies
Rapporteur: Hanni Nabahe, University of Arizona
The Mexican Revolution and the United States Website (Library of Congress)
Speakers: Barbara Tanenbaum, Consultant Hispanic Division; Tracy North, Social Sciences Ed., Handbook of Latin American Studies
Overview of this conversion project—there has been an earlier iteration on the website, but the formatting (style, template, etc) has recently been updated, which required meetings to discuss where the site would live, look, and most appropriate location within the LoC’s website. It will be listed with the exhibitions even though it was never a physical exhibition. However, much of the process resembled designing a physical exhibition.
Template: one with content, the other with metadata—resulted in a 250pg document
This is the first online exhibition for the LoC. It was renamed so it would be listed under M in the list of physical exhibits.
Around 2007, Barbara noticed the importance of 2010 for the Independence and Revolution. Not much is held on the Independence, so the decision was made to focus on the Revolution. However, donor approached where either ill or not interested. It was decided to collaborate with San Antonio. Ultimately the decision was made to use a website for the exhibit vs doing a physical, which changed the audience to student and scholars instead of the general public. It was also noted how many materials on the Revolution are available in all areas of the LoC. Extra funds from the previous year’s exhibition budget allowed it to be translated so it could be bilingual.
Challenges: the exhibition would not be a very happy one, which is what is one of the goals at LoC. Highlights from the online exhibit:
- Letter by Guerrero with war’s budget
- Posada (one of the best collections, after Hawaii)
- Corridos (you can listen to a couple—Arhoolie allowed the use of their materials as long as they were referenced. Audio only available for streaming, not download)
- Map of the Tragic Ten Days, GIS was used (#24 is highlights the Spanish translation)
- Atlas of the Mexican Revolution with stats (shows off the way the LoC is doing full-text digitization)
- Salvador Toscano filming of the Revolution—video of “Vaccinating to Keep the Disease Down” (side note: Pancho Villa signed a contract with a movie company—that is why he didn’t fight at night since it could not be filmed)
- Notable battles of the Revolution
- Women in the Revolution:
- Viewpoints (includes video)
- Individual Women (Four Prominent Soldaderas – shows a clipping that tells of a female leader)
- LoC holds the presidential papers up to Hoover (after FDR, they have their own libraries)
- Taft’s letter about being glad he didn’t have to send troops when Madero was murdered
- W. Wilson refused to recognize Huerta
The End of the Revolution
- For the exhibit, it ends in 1917 with the writing of the Constitution (includes digitized Diario Oficial of the Constitution of 1917)
- Alvaro Obregon vision for the nation
- Six original plays by Brigit O Caro (sp?) , in the original typescript
Examples of Resistance and Resilience by Writers in the Archive of Hispanic Literature on Tape
Speaker: Georgette Dorn, Chief Librarian, Hispanic Division
As articulated by Poets and Fiction
750 audio recordings
Cultural, ethnic, political
Authors include Nicolar Gillen (Cuba), Jorge Icaza (Ecuador), Juan Rulfo (México)
Repository was started in 1943 by Francisco Aguilera, specialists. Librarian of Congress asked him to record poets–includes 9 Nobel Laureates and other notable poets.. Georgette Dorn came next. Recorded on magnetic tape, most recorded off site in foreign countries and events. Since 2011, recordings are done in digital format and done at the Packard campus.
Recordings are in a number of languages, including Catalan, Guarani, Papamento, Zapotec, etc.
In 2015, Catalina Gomez & interns developed a project to digitized the archive, now available on the website with 5 being added every month.
Highlights (in slides):
Nicolas Guillen (Afro-cuban), Jorge Icaza (Indigenista), Juan Rulfo (Indigenista)
Documenting Resistance and Resilience in Brazil: The Library of Congress Field Office in Rio de Janeiro
Speakers: Carlos Olave, Head, Hispanic Reading Room; Igor Fazano, Acquisitions Specialist, LC Rio Office
- Monographs: 8065 acquired just in 2015
Many materials from NGOs since they are not allowed to have websites or publish their materials. Can be searched on LC.
- Serials: 2000+ titles, 225 offered to CAP
- Cordel: 13,000+
Unique way of reporting materials (booklets/pamphlets)
- BPG: (posters)
- Web Archive
Collection analysis (as seen on slides):
- 1st slide: scandals
- 2nd slide: marginalized people
- 3rd slides: subjects that are interrelated
- 4th slides: quilombos (settlement inhabited by escaped slaves)
LC has a very comprehensive collection thanks to the places where the Rio office is able to collect from, and because they are based in Brazil.
Questions to Presenters:
- Laura (didn’t catch last name), University of Georgia
Brasil resources only in LoC, because of legal issues. Cordels are available off site and
- Male, University of Pennsylvania
How do you acquire materials?
They approach all kinds of organizations—payment is not required, but time is
Voyager is more complete since there is more loaded there than in OCLC, those are preliminary record (cataloging backlog)—for materials not found on OCLC, you can contact LoC directly to request those be addressed
- Tracy North:
Social media—her division is being fed to the main LoC Facebook feed and to the new Area Blog, 4 Corners of the World (Katie discussed this for a few minutes)
THEORY AND PRACTICE OF LIBRARIANSHIP: TWO CASE STUDIES
SALALM 61, Panel 15, May 13, 2016, 9:00am-10:30am
Moderator: Micaela Chávez Villa, El Colegio de México
Rapporteur: Víctor Cid Carmona. Biblioteca Daniel Cosío Villegas, El Colegio de México.
Donna Canevari de Paredes
“South to North: The story of a Latin American Studies Collection and its Impact on the Development of Collections in Support of International Studies”.
Donna Canevari abordó el desarrollo de la colección de impresos para estudios latinoamericanos procedentes de varios continentes y coleccionados por cerca de 60 años.
En particular, se refirió a la colección de la doctora Beatte Salz Rosa (1913-2006), socióloga y antropóloga, de origen alemán, con estudios en Inglaterra y Estados Unidos, que desarrolló la mayor parte de su carrera académica en Puerto Rico, y que, al retirarse, se trasladó a Saskatoon, Saskatchewan a finales de los años 1970 para vivir con su hermana Judith Kent. La Universidad de Saskatchewan recibió dicha colección, con lo que enriqueció la colección general y fortaleció su acervo sobre América Latina.
La mayor parte de colección de B. Salz se recibió en 2003 y, posteriormente, una colección complementaria más pequeña en 2006. Se trata de una de las donaciones más relevantes a la Biblioteca, durante la primera década del siglo XXI.
A continuación, Donna Canevari de Paredes se refirió al proceso formativo de la Dra. B. Salz, que estudió en Cambridge University y después, migrada a Estados Unidos, lo hizo en Ohio State University, y en New York, donde obtuvo su doctorado en Sociología en 1950. Inmediatamente después se trasladó a Ecuador y Perú para hacer investigación de campo y en 1954 aceptó un cargo en la Universidad de Puerto Rico, en Rio Piedras.
La Colección Americana de la Dra. Salz se compone de 2185 títulos, que se pueden recuperar desde el catálogo de la Biblioteca, las obras fueron publicadas desde la primera mitad del siglo 19 hasta finales del siglo XX. Por la relevancia de las obras que la integran, la colección ha fortalecido los recursos de investigación en ciencias sociales sobre América Latina con que cuenta la Universidad, lo que ha incrementado la investigación sobre el área.
Fernando Erasmo Pacheco Olea, Viena Muirragui Irrazábal, Edwin León Plúas.
“La biblioteca universitaria ecuatoriana: perspectiva actual y reflexiones”
Los autores abordaron la situación actual de la gestión y organización de las bibliotecas universitarias ecuatorianas de carácter público y privado. El análisis que hacen los autores se enmarca en lo dispuesto en la Ley Orgánica de Educación Superior, aprobada por la Asamblea General, el 12 de octubre de 2012, que establece que la evaluación de la investigación constituye uno de los indicadores de calidad en las instituciones de educación superior.
Presentaron los resultados de un estudio aplicado a más de 50 universidades ecuatorianas en el que se consideraron entre otros, los siguientes aspectos:
– Número de Alumnos
– Tamaño del acervo
– Tipo de catálogo
– Acceso a recursos digitales
– Préstamo de material fuera de las instituciones
Explicaron que las universidades deben evaluarse cada 4 años para obtener una acreditación, con el objeto de elevar la calidad de los servicios que ofrecen.
A partir de los resultados obtenidos consideran que es necesario:
– Personal capacitado para satisfacer necesidades de los usuarios
– Pasantías en otras bibliotecas para conocer diversos servicios: OPAC, catalogación, etc.
– Mantener catálogos actualizados (formar consorcios)
– Fomentar el uso de software libre
– Alfabetización informacional, fundamental para las universidades
– Generar datos estadísticos públicos
– Disponer de estándares nacionales que faciliten el diseño de servicios y la valoración de los mismos
Sesión de preguntas:
Donna Canevari, University of Saskatchewan, hizo las siguientes preguntas a Fernando Pacheco:
¿Si no hay presupuesto como pueden tener acceso a recursos electrónicos y como los pagan? Cada año se debe negociar con el rector para tratar de conseguir presupuesto y mantener el acceso a los recursos
¿Existe alguna red o consorcio que les permita negociar mejores tarifas por los recursos? No, en una región específica del país, el autor trato de negociar títulos digitales y físicos, pero la normativa interna no permite por ahora dicho tipo de convenios.
Eudoxio Paredes, University of Saskatchewan, preguntó a Fernando Pacheco:
¿Quién asigna las becas en Ecuador? El estado ecuatoriano.
¿A qué nivel son los estudios de bibliotecología en Ecuador? A nivel de licenciatura en tres instituciones educativas, están tratando de formalizar un programa de maestría en la disciplina.
¿Cuantas universidades hay en Ecuador? 57 acreditadas
¿Hay un organismo universitario que regule la creación de universidades? si, el Consejo de Educación Superior, el Consejo de Evaluación, Acreditación y aseguramiento de la Calidad de la Educación Superior y la Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, tecnología e Innovación. Son filtros que han generado el cambio y hacen posible la movilidad de estudiantes.
¿Ustedes regresan anualmente a Ecuador a compartir lo que aprenden? Sí, es parte de la beca, regresar y replicar, inicialmente en nuestras instituciones.
¿Existe un Colegio de Bibliotecólogos? No existe, hace falta ese tipo de organismos rectores.
Donna Canevari y Eudoxio Paredes intervinieron para explicar el modelo de estudios bibliotecológicos en Estados unidos y la acreditación de la ALA.
Enrique Camacho, UNAM a Fernando Pacheco:
¿Cuáles son las carreras que se imparten en la universidad de Milagro?
La Universidad Estatal de Milagro tiene cinco facultades: Salud: enfermería, nutrición, terapia respiratoria; Educación: comunicación, diseño gráfico, psicología; Ciencias de la ingeniería: ingeniería en sistemas e ingeniería industrial, Facultad de Semipresenciales: Educación inicial, Economía, Gestión y turismo.
Enrique Camacho a Donna Canevari:
¿Cuál es el impacto en las áreas humanísticas de la colección sobre estudios latinoamericanos de la Dra. B. Salz?. Existen varios programas en Ciencias sociales y humanidades interesados en la Colección.
Víctor Cid, El Colegio de México, a Fernando Pacheco:
¿Existe legislación estatal relacionada con bibliotecas? Existen asociaciones y gremios, pero no una legislación específica.
SALALM 61, Panel 16, May 13, 2016, 9:00am-10:30am
Moderator: Alison Hicks, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Rapporteur: Melissa Gasparotto, Rutgers University
Jade Madrid, Research and Instruction Librarian, Tulane University.
Straight to the Source(s): Research guides at the Latin American Library
Madrid engaged in a long-term ongoing makeover project for 21 research guides organized across discipline and format. The move to LibGuides v. 2, a new Latin American Library website, plus a new Primo discovery layer prompted the changes in 2015. Goals were to make guides friendly, integrate technology, and give good visibility on home page. The research guides were integrated into Primo and displayed along with search results. Every guide has a primary sources tab. Some guides have class tabs. Madrid approached Libguides as conversation to distribute info through various means and ask for feedback. Through list-serves and social media. She found them to be a helpful outreach tool.
Orchid Mazurkiewicz, Director, Hispanic American Periodical Index (HAPI)
HAPI’s Journal Evaluation, Part 2: The Faculty Survey
Mazurkiewicz presented on a survey HAPI undertook as part of a larger journal project. The goal was a systematic evaluation: assess HAPI content, identify the most important journals, identify titles for deselection. She noted the distinction between assessing quality and excellence. Latindex was used to help assess quality, while: SCIELO, ISI, SJR and Redalyc were used to help assess excellence. There was no data for ⅓ of titles. This analysis resulted in lots of lists: Top titles by impact factor, top by download, etc. A third measure, value, was also added.
It was important to identify a journal’s role in field relative to other titles. There are 62 subject areas within HAPI. Qualtrics was used to collect info on influence of each selection of titles in each subject. 676 experts identified who got the customized survey for that field and asked to assess contents, roles, influence compared to other titles in the field. 248 responses were received. Some fields got lower return rate. Both sets of data (spreadsheets and Qualtrics) pulled together in Filemaker for each title and an easy to search relational database was created. Sometimes this large amount of data is contradictory. Some journals have no data from part 1 but a number from part 2 (experts rate highly, but nothing in indexes). The survey resulted in 140 recommendations from scholars on what additional titles to add to HAPI. Some of those are duplicate suggestions from multiple scholars. The data was not totally useful for helping decide what to keep in HAPI and what to drop, and some gaps remain.
Anne Barnhart, Head, Instructional Services, University of West Georgia
Who’s next? Notes on training the next generation of librarians
Barnhart has been teaching at UIUC iSchool in LAS librarianship since 2008. She has developed a new course using FIL Guadalajara as a laboratory and pitched a course for Fall 2015 Library & Information Resources for Spanish-Speaking Populations. She got an independent study student to help develop it the summer before. Students picked a library to investigate the Spanish speaking population there.16 enrolled students were interested in public libraries, 5 in academic libraries, and 1 prison in libraries. Sample assignments included reference questions, assessing information needs. 10 students went to FIL. In Fall 2015 the course was an 8-week class but feedback said it should be 16 weeks so Fall 2017 will be 16 weeks. Students, some of whom had never left the country before, recognized that they were getting a perspective that perhaps gave insight into how their patrons felt, including empathy after having been in another country without language skills. The group visited a couple public libraries to see what Mexican concept of a public library was.
Michael Scott, Bibliographer for Latin American Studies and Iberian Languages, Georgetown University
The Newest Novedades: Using Social Media for Collection Development
Scott discussed the problem of “too much stuff” on Latin American publishing on the web. However writers, publishers, translators, bookstores, record labels and cultural orgs are all on social media. These can help you find out about important people and publications. Create separate lists for Brazilian publishers, for example, on Twitter. Searching hashtags can be helpful #novedadesliterarias, #historia, #futbol #livros. You can query your Twitter lists. Twitter also has an advanced search under More Options. The advantages of engaging social media for collection development includes the potential for a personal connection with authors, publishers, etc., tweets are immediately seen and are short, and librarians can also choose to use it passively. Disadvantages: the personal connection can be odd, limited character space, lack of context (reprint vs new pub?), can be overwhelming. Facebook seems to be more popular with publishers, but some authors also have FB pages. Literary magazines and cultural orgs are also active on FB. Film series, and other events, can let you know of things for collection. You can create groups on FB like Twitter, to help filter. Advantages: posts tend to have a broader focus. Maintained pages tend to be very current, and it’s easy to contact page owners. Disadvantages : the new search feature doesn’t work so well, there is lots of advertising, and it is hard to use passively. It can also be overwhelming. Scott recommended Follow/like based on research and teaching interests at your institution. This can also lead to invitations to present at your institution. Newsfeeds like Feedly can also help. Bookmark links to titles sorted by country, region, vendor, etc.
Betsaida Reyes, Librarian for Spanish, Portuguese, Latin American, and Caribbean Studies, University of Kansas
Digital Repatriation: Returning Guatemalan Broadsides Through Digital Access
Why digital repatriation? At a no-host during SALALM in Salt Lake City, Dan Hazen noted that buying trips aren’t just about bringing things from LA to US, but are an exchange. Reyes undertook a broadside digitization project, to connect Guatemala and University of Kansas. She wanted to share beyond the institution. When she attended FILGUA in Guatemala she went to the Biblioteca Nacional stand at the fair to get good contacts for the project and visited the Biblioteca Nacional the next day. She spoke to library director and Head of acquisitions about the collection Kansas had and why there was a tradition of Central American collecting there, and about the digitization project. She was not asking for support from them, except as a partner for sharing/distributing the materials. The broadside collection is part of the Griffith collection, and includes ephemera, broadsheets, manuscripts from the late 18th c to ~1920. UK digitized 611, over 400 Guatemalan broadsides from 1822-1920 (stopping there because of copyright). Biblioteca Nacional providing access to digital surrogates through their blog, but they are not particularly visible or well described on their site. The next step is to take all the data and image files, put them on an external hard drive and send them to the Biblioteca Nacional – they could do Spanish language cataloging and make images available on their own server. https://lib.ku.edu/broadsides
Ricarda Musser, Director for Acquisitions and Catalog- ing, Ibero-American Institute, Berlin Latin American Cultural Magazines (1860-1930): Acquisition and Digitization in the Ibero-American Institute Berlin
Musser took an acquisition trip to Lima in 2009 where she identified 3 cultural magazines: El Peru Ilustrado, Prisma and Actualidades. Funding came through 3 years later, to acquire and digitize 80 titles from LA and Caribbean, from 1860-1930. The funding included acquisition trips, scanning equipment, filling gaps in existing runs, etc. Cultural magazines are so important because they were interdisciplinary, written for everybody, on a wide range of topics. They reflect a huge diversity of genres and text types, are richly illustrated, and include ads for companies and products. They have a high cultural and social relevance, show intervention of intellectuals and artists into political and social life and played an important role in the development of a cultural and national identity. They also how international relations and have a high relevance for researching in different disciplines. Special pages for women are of high interest to gender studies. The digital collection “Cultural Magazines of Latin America” launched in 2014. Links from OPAC to other institutional digital projects (Memoria Chilena, for example). Pdf downloads are available through a 3-language platform. IAI Home–>Collections–>Cultural Magazines. Project ends Dec. 2016. 70 digitized titles, 6 titles in microfilm, 6 titles linked to other institutions. Season II funding application has been submitted and Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Colombia, Peru are targeted. Additional list of titles will be digitized with the IAI’s own funding.
O Mazurkiewicz noted that Musser has a paper published in the next set of SALALM papers. B Alvarez asked Musser to comment on copyright issues. Ricarda noted that it’s difficult to find someone to ask and if they’re not sure, they’ll still do it. For some titles they get permissions. They will honor takedown requests. The penalty is only 60 Euros per issue, which they’re willing to pay. Most times they hear back that this is a great project because most journals or orgs in LA don’t have funds to do it themselves.
AJ Johnson asked Mazurkiewicz: how do the physical collections in HAPI work? Mazurkiewicz noted that for the list of titles they index, some are acquired in print, some digitally, some both. Clarified that when she talks about their collection, it’s about all of those.
Jana Krantz asked Musser if there was collaboration among other libraries to fill in gaps in title runs. Musser answered that yes, some holding institutions like Memoria Chilena help, sometimes libraries in US has copies to loan for digitization. Ultimately it is not possible to acquire all missing issues.
Peter Johnson asked Musser and Reyes: have these projects stimulated marketplace in that other collections may be available for purchase or otherwise incorporating into your projects. Reyes didn’t think so. Musser responded that during acquisition trips she made contact with vendors and collectors who continue to help provide missing issues. They can suggest related titles, even when they don’t have the needed issues. Making connections during trip to Peru yielded so much info about new titles that Peru is included in second phase of project. Collectors who do not often sell have seen the project and are not interested in sending issues. AJ Johnson asked about these collectors – have any expressed interest in lending rather than selling? Musser said no, but noted that in Peru, there is one vendor who plans to make facsimile editions.
Reyes asked Scott: how do you prevent your FB feed from getting overly tweaked, preventing visibility of the posts. Scott suggested using the groups feature. As FB improves searchability that could be the solution, as well. Keeping your followed groups on the smaller side also helps. Use Ad-block on Chrome.
Peter Johnson asked Anne Barnhart- in light of SALALM scholarship, if you took in demographics on the students, what is their substantive knowledge of the Spanish-speaking world? They have ambition to work with this population, but what is their background? Barnhart said group was fairly mixed. Such a high number were interested in public librarianship – this course maybe gave them a leg up in the market in the Chicago area. Some students were heritage speakers. Johnson noted that a public library background was no reason not to award scholarship for these kinds of students. Barnhart noted trepidation offering this class with public library focus, as she didn’t have the background. But since it was requested from students she offered it. Peter Jonson wondered if there was a need for SALALM involvement in these kinds of public librarian training/conference/prof develop opps, as members have a lot of important niche knowledge to share. Barnhart noted how important it was to help provide such a broad view of the Spanish-speaking population – very diverse in demographics and info needs.
AJ Johnson asked Madrid how much these guides were done from her own vision and how much she surveyed other guides. She always looks at other LA guides to help find more sources to include. For the design aspect LibGuides are limited and there aren’t many options so she didn’t spend a lot of time looking at design of other guides.
Hicks asked Mazurkiewicz: how did you decide who to send survey to? Mazurkiewicz said the HAPI intern at that time was an academic and started hunting around different univ. pages to identify prominent names in each field and get their contact info.
Peter Johnson asked Mazurkiewicz: to what extent did you rely on list of contributing editors to find names? Mazurkiewicz was not sure.
Lara Aase asked Mazurkiewicz: how was your 36% return rate in comparison to standard? Mazurkiewicz noted that while it was solid, she didn’t look at statistical significance.
AJ Johnson asked Mazurkiewicz if it will be written up and distributed? What else will you do with this? Mazurkiewicz said it’s been on the to-do list. Part One was presented a couple years ago at SALALM, and she’s now working with an intern to help analyze the data and write up the project. But still need to deal with the results themselves for HAPI. Doesnt’ want to embarrass certain journals that may not have ranked well. Reyes asked Mazurkiewicz about the process for creating an in-house database. Orchid noted Filemaker was used because they had experience with this, but that they also contracted with an outside expert to build the database structure and import data from two sources, which was a little outside their in-house expertise. Musser said that there is another open source software commonly used in German research and university libraries, but it was not possible to build a search platform for 3 languages with it so they contracted with an outside company who had developed those components, and paid for those. The IAI’s small IT department couldn’t handle that in-house.
SALALM 61 (2016)
Opening Session and Keynote Address
Monday, May 9, 2016
Paloma Celis Carbajal, SALALM President 2015-2016, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Martha R. Sites, University of Virginia
Fernando Opere, University of Virginia
Miguel Valladares-Llata, SALALM Local Arrangements Committee Chair 2015-2016, University of Virginia
Dr. Charles R. Hale, Director of LLILAS Benson Latin American Studies Collections, University of Texas at Austin
Latin American Studies Unbound: Finding the ‘Sweet Spot’ of Collaboration between Collections and Scholarship/Teaching
Rapporteur: Daisy Domínguez, The City College of New York, CUNY
After the opening remarks, President Celis Carbajal introduced keynote speaker Charles R. Hale, Director of LLILAS Benson Latin American Studies and Collections at the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Hale’s article “The Future of Latin American Studies” (Americas Quarterly, 2014) was one of the texts that inspired her for the conference theme.
Dr. Hale thanked Celis Carbajal for the invitation. The Benson Collection and its librarians have played a big role at SALALM. The LLILAS Benson partnership between faculty and librarians began in 2011. At first, the goal was efficiency and communication, but in time, it has become a space where disciplinary and physical boundaries are transcended as manifested by workflows, projects, and initiatives. Partnerships like this can serve as a blueprint for internationalization of higher education. Idea came from adversity; retirement of Hartness in 2005 resulted in a long search and no director, Hale described growth and shifting of organizational culture assuming new identities as LLILAS Benson. Still lots of ambiguities, or creative tensions, that keep them challenged. LLILAS Benson has created this collaboration but still affirm identity of each. The most emblematic initiatives have resulted not from the leadership team, but from the various actors – librarians, faculty, graduate students, and professional staff – who have the same mission under the same space. Hale discussed four initiatives: Digital Archive of the Guatemalan National Police Historical Archive; Archive of the Central American Revolutions; and Primeros Libros Digitization Project; and Latin American Digital Initiatives (LADI). The post-custodial archival forms the centerpiece of the LLILAS archival enterprise and the shift must be achieved collectively through a coalition of Latin American libraries across the country. LLILAS’s guiding principles are to seek horizontal and reciprocal relationships of knowledge production, replacing the imperial gaze from the north, exemplified in the open access movement; ethos of collaboration across intellectual communities – not just north and south but also between civil society intellectuals and university based counterparts – which is seen in post-custodial archival relationships; and a preferential option for scholarship and teaching that engages the world with a social justice lens. Rather than see Global Studies as a watered down displacement, we need a proactive blueprint that’s more vibrant and critically engaged and which requires a collaboration space between librarians and scholar teachers. We can set Latin American Studies on new course, unbound by past restraints and becoming ideal leaders for universities with an increasingly urgent mandate to understand and engage our troubled world.
Questions and Comments:
Matthew Hill (Brigham Young University) asked Dr. Hale to expand on challenges. Hale expressed concern that globalization is watering down the deep knowledge of area studies. Hale advised that we drive and lead rather than react to this process. We should push for collaborative projects in all that we do. It is not possible to have Global Studies without deep embedded Latin American Studies.
Paula Covington (Vanderbilt) asked whether LANIC is still being updated or has ceased to exist, noting that SALALM librarians use it as a teaching tool. Hale commented that it is alive and well but has changed form. It used to be part of LLILAS and a standalone center, but is now part of a much larger effort.
Paul Losch (University of Florida) noted that the University of Texas at Austin staff has the benefit of being in the same building and asked whether Dr. Hale had words of advice for places that are physically spread out. Dr. Hale thanked Losch for the great question. When partnership started, Hale had just read a New Yorker article about MIT where they put all manner of scientists in one space and how they kept meeting in the halls and coming up with serendipitous great ideas and how many Nobel prizes came of those conversations. There is something powerful in physical proximity; you see each other, have events together, etc. That said, a lot of work also happens when they are not physically together.
Suzanne Schadl (University of New Mexico) asked Dr. Hale to talk about joint appointments and the bureaucracy of making that happen. Hale noted that the idea started with a partnership. There were all kinds of bureaucratic complexities. There has to be a lot of dialogue, including the issue of merit-based raises. Replacements involve new type of negotiation. Diplomacy is also important.
Enrique Camacho (UNAM) exaltó la charla y preguntó si se puede extender a colegas latinoamericanos la visita al acervo. Hale mencionó algunas oportunidades pero notó que se necesita muchas más.
SALALM 60 (Princeon)
Panel 1: Perspectives on Digital Humanities Scholarship
Moderator: Barbara Alvarez (University of Michigan)
Rapporteur: Cate Kellett (Yale Law School)
Presenters: Aquiles Alencar-Brayner (British Library), Thomas M. Cohen and Joan R. Stahl, (Catholic University of America), Patricia Figueroa (Brown University)
Barbara Alvarez, Librarian for Romance Languages and Literatures & Comparative Literature at the University of Michigan, introduced and moderated the panel of four presenters from three institutions, who focused on projects they participated in involving digital humanities and Latin American collections.
Aquiles Alencar-Brayner, Curator of Latin American Collections at the British Library, presented Digital Scholarship and its Impact on Latin American Studies. He reported on his library’s use of digital humanities to expand access to Latin American resources in innovative and resourceful ways. Due to cuts in funding over the years, the British Library has relied on creativity and ingenuity to reach out to new audiences around the world.
The Endangered Archive Programme (EAP) supports digitization of content in archives around the world that are in danger of disappearing due to lack of funds, poor preservation, or other unfortunate circumstances. The program offers money and expertise, as well as equipment if needed. Mr. Alencar-Brayner noted that there are not many applications from Latin America, so please spread the news and encourage others to apply. While the EAP does provide for digital preservation, he stressed his library’s focus on broadening digital humanities projects extends beyond digitization.
British Library Labs, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, is one project that encourages digital scholarship by opening up digital content and data to researchers on a large One million images scanned from books from the British Library were released to Flickr Commons to allow anyone to manipulate them. The partnerships formed between researchers and library experts encourage engagement with users and allow for exciting new experimentation.
Thomas M. Cohen and Joan R. Stahl, both from Catholic University of America, presented Crossing the Digital Divide: A New Direction at the Oliveira Lima Library. Professor Cohen outlined the history of the Oliveira Lima Library (housed at CUA in Washignton, D.C.), which consists of 60,000 books plus manuscripts, ephemera, art, and more covering such topics as Brazilian history, literature, and diplomacy. Mr. Lima was a journalist and avid book collector. His wife Flora actively collaborated with him, which was rare for women to do. He was generous with his collection because he wanted North Americans to learn about “Latin American soul.” As director of the library, Professor Cohen is particularly proud of the library’s art collection, which he hopes will form the basis of a small museum in the future. Do to the small space and lack of funding, for now many pieces are out of sight or on loan.
Ms. Stahl, Director of Research and Instruction at Catholic University, explained the challenges she faces in reaching users interested in the Oliveira Lima Library. Many researchers reside outside D.C., but there is no online public catalog to the collection. They have early descriptions at the collection level, but there is a large backlog of uncatalogued items. There is also no conservation and the lack of physical space makes it difficult to locate items and organize the collection. There is also limited space for researchers to sit within the facility. Faced with all these challenges, she said they decided to partner with Gale to digitize their pamphlet collection. Gale rehoused the pamphlets for archival storage, barcoded them all for inventory and made them accessible online. This type of project would not have been feasible for such a small library without the help of a larger partner.
Patricia Figueroa, Curator of the Iberian and Latin American Collections at Brown University, gave an overview of digital projects at her library. She often collaborates with professors to provide supplementary course materials online. Some of the work included having students provide additional content for companion websites to textbooks. You can find examples at http://library.brown.edu/brasiliana.
Ms. Figueroa described a particularly interesting project called Opening the Archives, which involved the joint effort of Brown, NARA, Unviersidade Estadual de Maringa, and the Brazilian National Archives to digitize and index 100,000 United States government documents on Brazil from 1960-1980. Professor James N. Green wanted to make this material available to people in Brazil who otherwise would not have access to such important information. Brown provided funding to pay students to go to Washington and digitize the documents. Librarians helped with logistics, including metadata standards, digitization standards, project management, and training students on how to carry out such a large-scale project. Ms. Figueroa demonstrated how to access the end product, which was a website in English and Portuguese. There are still edits to be made, more documents to be scanned, and they hope to create a mirror site at the Unviersidade Estadual de Maringa.
Ms. Figueroa also updated the audience on new additions to the Thomas E. Skidmore Collection. Professor Skidmore donated his personal library and papers to Brown in 2006 but more recently added Brazilian portraits to the collection. She noted that descriptions of famous Brazilians depicted in the portraits are often humorous.
During the question period, Jesus Alonso-Regalado, from the University at Albany, asked what it meant to be a curator at the British Library. Mr. Alencar-Brayner replied that the curators at his library are like the glue that bonds everything together. They facilitate access to digital collections by making it usable and relevant to users. They also promote those collections and ask the users themselves to add information to the catalog records.
Janete Saldaha Bach Estevão, from Universidade Federal do Paraná, asked Ms. Figueroa to elaborate on what kind of students helped out with the Opening the Archives project. They were a mix of graduate students in the history department and undergraduates from various majors at Brown who were from all over the United States. Some were of Brazilian descent. They collaborated with two additional students from Brazil to bring the project to researchers and other interested parties there. Shortly after they published an article on the collection in Brazil, there were an additional 10,000 hits to the website.
Michael Scott, from Georgetown, asked if there were other projects in the future at the Oliveira Lima Library. Ms. Stahl answered that they have many ideas, but their plans rely on what Gale prefers to digitize next. Professor Cohen added that they will definitely go forward with another project with Gale, but they are not sure which one yet. Without the partnership with Gale, they would not have digitized such a substantial portion of the collection, due to funding issues. The database is currently only available to those with subscriptions, but after an embargo period, the library will be able to upload the digitized collection to their website for anyone to access.
Katie McCann, from the Library of Congress, asked Mr. Alencar-Brayner how he promoted projects at the British Library that encourage users to manipulate data within their digital humanities collections. He answered that they use social media and put basic instructions online. They had planned a press release for their geo-referencing project, but after posting to twitter, all 2000 maps were geo-referenced by the next day, before they could put out the press release.
Ms. Alvarez closed the session by thanking the presenters.
Moderator: David Dressing, University of Notre Dame
Rapporteur: Marisol Ramos, University of Connecticut
David Dressing, University of Notre Dame: The purpose of panel was to discuss the history of both organizations inside the bigger structure of CRL and clarify the difference between LAMP and LARRP mission.
Judy Alspach—Building on A history of Collaboration: The evolution of LAMP and LARRP
Judy Alspach, CRL Area Studies Program Manager, offered a brief history of CRL and LAMP and LARRP to give a historical context to their creation and original missions.
CRL was founded in 1949 and located in High Park neighborhood in Chicago. It supports original research in the humanities, sciences and social sciences through physical and electronic collections. It also supports collective decision-making among its members. These include consortia purchases of electronic databases or microfilms collections, pre-archiving, etc. Originally, CRL started with ten founding institutions from the Midwest. Right now they have over 200 North American members in the US and Canada and their recently added new membership category, Global members include Germany, India, Hong Kong. Members get the following benefits:
- Extended Interlibrary Loan of CRL collection
- Digital Delivery of CRL materials
- Access to LLMC-Digital Cooperative collection programs and services
- Licensing of specialized databases
- Access to Charleston Advisor
Under CRL there are six projects that Judy referred to as the “AMPs”, which work to acquire library and archival materials from different world regions. The first one created was the Cooperative Africana Materials Project (CAMP) founded in 1963, LAMP was the fourth AMP created in 1975. There are 49 members and currently they pay $765 in dues.
LAMP: When originally constituted, LAMP focused first in acquiring microfilm materials from Mexico and Brazil based on an analysis of the needs of the 16 members at the time. Choosing these countries was a strategic decision by the members as they started this collaborative collection building in areas of great interests for the membership. At that time, LAMP purchased microfilm and did original microfilming. For a complete history visit, http://www.crl.edu/pt-br/area-studies/lamp/membership-information/project-history. Judy encouraged the LAMP members in the audience to continue this strategic thinking when considering projects and purchases so gaps can be filled based on the collective needs of institutional members.
Today, LAMP continues to acquire newspapers, archival collections, government documents, periodicals, ephemera and other rare material from/about Latin America but it is not limited to just buying microfilm or microfiche, or microfilming materials but it has expanded its mission to support digitization projects. There are over 10,000 reels available for lending to LAMP members.
LARRP (Latin Americanist Research Resources Project) was launched in 1994. When it started there were 20 members and now there are 46 paying $900 in annual membership dues. Seven LARRP partners in Latin America do not pay dues but they have historically contributed to LARRP projects. LARRP was launched with the help of several grants: a matching grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and two TICFIA (Technological Innovation and Cooperation for Foreign Information Access) grants from the U.S. Dept. of Education in 1999-2002. The first grant for $405,000 purchased equipment and anything else necessary to support LARRP work and the second of $585,000 supported the acquisition of Latin American grey literature in the social sciences to be shared through an Open Archives Portal.
LARRP had always been about collaboration and open access to information from Latin America and the Caribbean as some of the early initiatives attested. For example, LAPTOP (The Latin American Periodicals Tables of Contents) was started in 1994 to give access to print journals from Latin American and the Caribbean not indexed elsewhere. LARRP members contributed content from 1994-2009. Currently this legacy database is hosted at Vanderbilt University and it is available for searches at http://laptoc.library.vanderbilt.edu/query/basic_search.jsp. The focus has not been collection building like LAMP but to create access to hard to find information.
Another example is LAOAP (The Latin American Open Archives Portal) a project created to provide scholars with a portal to find grey literature created in Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently it is hosted through LANIC at the University of Texas-Austin, http://lanic.utexas.edu/project/laoap/. LAOAP includes working documents, preprints, research papers, statistical documents, and other difficult-to-access material published by research institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and peripheral agencies, and that are not controlled by commercial publishers. Major contributors to this project include Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales-Chile (FLACSO-Chile) and Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamérica (CIRMA).
Finally, LARRP has for many years supported a collaborative collection development project called the Distributed Resources Project where each member of LARRP commits 7% of their collection budget to purchase monographs and other materials in their declared area of focus (geographical area or around a topic, folklore, music, etc…). The total reallocated funding has been more than $170,000 per year.
Melissa Guy—LARRP Today: Strategic Directions and a Vision for the future
Melissa presented on the big transition and new directions that LARRP undertook back in 2012 when all grant-funded projects were done or winding down. In a LARRP executive meeting at Austin in 2012, Dan Hazen raised the question of what to do next? What else LARRP should be doing besides paying for the Advisory Board members to meet, now that these projects were over or almost over? They decided to strategically plan new directions. For that purpose and as a suggestion from Judy Alspach, LARRP Advisory Board draft their first By-laws to formalize the governing structure of the organization and allow more participation beyond the Advisory Board by creating Working Groups that would assist them in moving forward. The By-laws were approved in 2014, together with the election of chairs and new working groups.
Although the core mission of LARRP remained the same, a new document was developed. This Strategic Directions Document created to guide the creation of new activities into the future.
Three areas were identified as priorities:
1) Access to primary sources through digital initiatives. E.g. the Princeton Ephemera digitization project.
2) Collections analysis and the continuation of the Distributive Resources Program (DRP) (mentioned by Judy).
- The data that will be gathered will be use to better communicate with administrators the value of LARRP projects to participating members and to help plan better collection development activities that will benefit all members.
3) Promote visibility of Latin American and Caribbean content in various arenas including indexes, web-scale discovery solutions, and other similar tools.
Working groups were created to tackle these issues. Some of the activities assigned to these working groups already had been done through committee in the old structure but the creation of the new structure promises to allow for better focus and participation from the membership at large. The working groups include:
Communication and Outreach (chaired by Teresa Chapa): Main charge is to advertise and promote LARRP projects and serve as a liaison with the broader Latin Americanist community. A recent addition to the group’s duties includes encouraging and facilitating membership and participation in LARRP.
Collaborative Collections and Analysis (chaired by Paul Losch) – promotes the expansion of the Latin American Studies collection by analyzing its members’ acquisitions trends and encouraging deep collecting in specific areas of interest. It is responsible to continue the work of DRP.
Digital Initiatives Working Group (chaired by Mei Mendez): focus on increasing access to primary sources for research on Latin America through digitization and other initiatives. Post-custodial archives may become a priority for this group.
Resource Discovery Working Group (chaired by David Dressing) is a completely new group that facilitates the visibility of research resources for Latin America. This group will work with content aggregators, discovery tool providers, and other information creators for the benefit of the Latin Americanist research community.
There will be opportunities for LARRP members to become involved in all of these initiatives. A call will go out after the SALALM meeting.
In October 2014, the new elected working groups chairs, members at large, and the rest of the advisory committee (both current and “legacy members”) met in Chicago to start working on goals and objectives for each working group. One goal of great importance was the drafting of new criteria for LARRP proposals. Mei Mendez, chair of Digital Initiatives, led on this task. The resulting document served to clarify many issues regarding the type of projects that LARRP will support from now on, both from the membership and the advisory board. During this meeting, the new Strategic document guided the discussion on what the criteria should be for projects, based on 6 principles found in the document:
1) Work within existing systems, rather than building new infrastructure
2) Adhere to open access principles
3) Support scholarship in a variety of disciplines
4) Provide models for future collaboration
5) Involve institutional partners within Latin American whenever possible
6) Provide added value to the Latin Americanist research community as a whole
The 2015-2016 call for proposals was the first submitted under the new criteria. Several traditional digitization projects were received, but also a request for an endorsement of an Argentine open access approval plan project.
What is next?
- LARRP will continue to be an entity that vets and provides funding and support for open access projects. A new faculty rep was selected, Gustavo Fischman from Arizona State, who has a solid academic background in this area, particularly focused on Mexico and Brazil.
- Through our new working group setup, LARRP is in the position to take on some of the major issues and challenges facing Latin American and Area Studies librarianship
Melissa finished her presentation by thanking Dan Hazen for being the inspiration to the changes that LARRP experienced in the last several years. He asked the hard questions that enabled the group to justify the dues we gather from our members, to collaborate with partners in Latin America, and to lead the way in international librarianship. Melissa expressed her commitment to honor Hazen’s legacy by pushing LARRP in this new directions.
Suzanne M. Schadl, University of New Mexico—LAMP (CRL): Collaborative Preservation of Brazilian Primary Source Materials
Suzanne opened her presentation with a note on the relevance of microfilm, which remains a reliable and accessible preservation method that does not depend on software and can still be accessed in the absence of electricity by placing it in front of a light source. More importantly, engaging in microfilming archival projects helps expand the amount of critical primary sources from Latin American and Caribbean. LAMP plays a big role helping international institutions to preserve their archival collections through microfilm projects, and making them accessible to institutional members in United States and Canada.
Instead of talking about the history of LAMP—which Judy from CRL had already covered, Suzanne chose to address specific examples of LAMP projects that connect with the theme of the conference, “Brazil in the World, the World in Brazil: Research Trends and Library Resources.” These example showcase cooperative engagement and partnerships across boundaries. They showcase how microfilming and digitization as well as LAMP and LARRP complement each other. Suzanne noted that she had a personal reason to pick these examples: As a graduate student, some of the materials from Brazil that LAMP helped preserved were vital to her own dissertation research.
In the context of the conference theme, LAMP is dealing with the same issues being discussed in the conference: the need to build sustainable practices through collaboration/cooperation and partnerships, and the need to provide library services that support learning and research in higher education (Discovery, Knowledge, and Design). For Suzanne, LAMP has excelled especially in the area of knowledge by preserving and making accessible rare and difficult to access materials. She emphasized that this history of collaboration and cooperation in LAMP (and LARRP) reflected library trends current today such as the 2015 ACRL Research Planning and Review Committee which emphasized “deeper collaboration” as a unifying theme under new trends, looking specifically at “data, device neutral digital services, evolving openness in higher education, student success initiatives, competency-based learning, altmetrics, and digital humanities”.
Suzanne discussed the history and background of the Brazilian Government Document project. This LAMP project funded in 1994 by a Mellon Foundation grant, aimed to explore the viability of digitizing microfilm. LAMP engaged the Biblioteca Nacional and the Arquivo Nacional to collaborate in the scanning and indexing a selection of 19th and 20th century Brazilian Government documents of great importance in the history of the country: Provincial Presidential Reports (1830-1930) Presidential Messages (1889-1993) Almanak Laemmert (1844-1889) Ministerial Reports (1821-1960) from microfilm [to learn more about this project visit, http://www-apps.crl.edu/brazil] LAMP representatives including Scott Van Jacob, David Block, Ann Hartness, Dan Hazen, Marlys Rudeen, and James Simon worked in collaboration with the University of Notre Dame, Cornell University, University of Texas at Austin, Harvard College Library, Center for Research Libraries, and the Biblioteca Nacional, Arquivo Nacional to coordinate this project.
Suzanne asked, what has changed in LAMP? Have the means changed, the purposes? Is there still a reason for preserving materials through cooperative agreements? And if the mean have changed, what have we learned from actions of the past? To compare the past with the present, Suzanne shared highlights from a report by Scott Van Jacob about the Brazilian Government Document Project. Van Jacob reported that the BGDP project increased scholarly access to rare materials by expanding these corpus through digitalization. It also implemented new mechanisms for better bibliographic and structured access and indexing, explored levels of demand and patterns of use through assessment and statistics, and helped refine the process of creating digital image files from preservation microfilm.
What new directions is LAMP taking in its cooperative projects? Suzanne mentioned improving access to data, working to develop new device-neutral digital services; inspiring new evolving models that promote openness in higher education; encouraging initiatives for student success and competency-based learning; and offering alternatives and new models such as Altmetrics and digital humanities.
An example that Suzanne discussed briefly and that showcased similar ideas is the case of Ann Hartness’ Subject Guide to Statistics in the Presidential Reports of the Brazilian Provinces 1830-1889 printed in 1977 by the Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin. This print source was later digitized to increase access of both the bibliographic information and the digitized materials, see the Hartness’ Guide to Statistical Information at http://brazil.crl.edu/bsd/bsd/hartness/index.html.
Suzanne asked: How do we expand partnership (old and new) in the future? LAMP is committed to exploring new and expand old partnerships to promote digital humanities, for examples, by continuing what LAMP already is good at: Set the standards for preservation and selection of content and we have readings related to that content. The new direction should include finding collaborators with experience in design to help us design better interfaces for content.
Finally, she briefly mentioned a project that served as an example of the way forward – a model for how collaboration might help achieve greater accessibility. The recently finished Brazil: Nunca Mais Project, is a microfilm collection that was digitized to increase access http://www.crl.edu/impact/brazilian-human-rights-evidence-preserved-nunca-mais-project and http://bnmdigital.mpf.mp.br/#!/ This project not only offers access to over 1,000,000 digitized records that document human rights violations by the Brazilian Military Court from 1964-1979 but also have an interface that allow searches across all the documents in the collection. Check out other LAMP projects at http://www.crl.edu/area-studies/lamp/collections/guides
Gail Williams, Florida International University: Shared historical background about LARRP. She reminded people that originally LARRP was founded under the auspices of ARL (Academic Research Libraries) but in 2005-2006 they decided to let LARRP moved to CRL.
Other historical tidbits: In the 1990s there was discussion to hire agents in Mexico and other key countries to collect extensively ephemera but that plans did not happen.
Finally, Gail asked the question, what is the difference between LAMP and LARRP? Should they co-exist? Or should they merge? She felt at this point that “we still do not have the answer to those questions”.
Judy Alspach, CRL: To answer Gail’s questions here are some considerations. She shared a slide that shows the differences and commonalities between the two groups. She mentioned that she sees a couple of different scales, but also a continuum between LAMP and LARRP that can serve as a guideline to think about these two groups.
- One of the main differences between LAMP and LARRP is that LAMP’s main concern is to build and own collections, while LARRP is not interested in building collections of materials.
- Collaboration is important for both groups but for LARRP collaboration between members is expected, and many projects in LARRP encourage active participation of all its members one way or another. While for LAMP, although collaboration is considered important, all members are not required or expected to participate in the same projects in the same way as LARRP does. For example, LAMP members contribute with monies to collectively purchase, microfilm or digitize materials, while in LARRP, projects such as the Distribute Resource Project, or the past LAPTOC project, needed the participate of all (or most) of its members for its success.
- [Later added by Judy as part of AJ Johnson, UT-Austin, comments]. LAMP always had a commitment to invest in the “preservation for access” of rare and endanger primary materials as part of their core mission.
- Both groups articulate the value of involving international partners in an on-going contributing way
- Both groups believe in open access. Both groups promote projects that benefit the broader Latin American research community as a whole. Both groups support projects that contain elements with broad appeal to its members, and non-members as well
Melissa Guy, Arizona State University: Regarding demarcation between LAMP and LARRP. She commented that although there are similarities between both groups and even projects that both group may fund together, because the new Strategic Directions Document created recently, and the new working groups created based on these new directions for LARRP, it will mean that new projects will tackle bigger and broader issues, beyond digitization.
Gail Williams, Florida International University: Gail reminded people that LARRP since the beginning was able to tackle big granted projects by having members institutions volunteer to be PIs (Principal Investigator), for example UT-Austin and UCLA.
David Dressing, Notre Dame: Agreed with AJ Johnson that LAMP’s core mission is preservation and that LARRP mission is finding way to give more access to information instead of getting content available. He also asked how technology changes will affect LARRP’s mission to find new ways to make information and content more available.
Melissa Guy, Arizona State University: Melissa addressed this issue by saying that LARRP after the experience with LAPTOC decided to stop chasing technology. LARRP’s job is not creating infrastructures that may become obsolete through time. LARRP will focus instead for on discoverability and working with vendors and providers to educate on how to make Latin American and Caribbean materials more discoverable using their tools. The Resources Discovery working group was created to tackle these issues. s.
Suzanne M. Schadl, University of New Mexico: Suzanne added that we should consider other models such as the archival post-custodial model. Also she sees LARRP as a broker between international partners and our university administrators to justify purchases of technology that will benefit partners and hopefully avoid unnecessary bureaucracy. Instead of trying to do projects individually, LARRP can do it as a group.
Judy Alspach, CRL: Judy mentioned that one of the biggest challenges moving forward is tackling copyright issues related to technology and access. CRL can control access through IP address so only members can access materials with copyright issues but that may defeat open access efforts. Also, technology capacity is an issue. She used as an example an audio files proposal discussed recently in the LARRP meeting which she declared at this point may be impossible to tackle by CRL/LAMP/LARRP because they have not the technology to handle audio files yet. She felt the project was more appropriate for LAMP since it has a preservation component. But she admitted that sometimes it is difficult to decide what can be done with a project because of copyrights and capability issues.
Chris Hernández, Tulane U.: She asked clarification regarding LAMP and LARRP guidelines since she felt that they were confusing when she was deciding which group to apply for the audio files projects referred by Judy. Chris thought that her project did not qualify for LAMP because in the website it said that LAMP was more interested in preserving “newsworthy” content and her project contains content that is entertainment related.
Marisol Ramos, University of Connecticut: She reminded panelists that CRL staff and LAMP and LARRP advisory committee members are available for consultation and clarification regarding projects suitability and which group is more appropriate for applications We welcome all questions, so don’t hesitate to ask. She expressed that regarding the Tulane project, the material in question had incredible scholarly value for researchers so it is appropriate for LAMP. Suzanne M. Schadl (UNM) mentioned that this confusion may have occurred because the website is listing past projects which included many newspaper microfilm projects.
Marisol Ramos (UConn), also made the suggestion that CRL should have an in-house expert regarding copyright issues or to contact experts in the copyright issues in libraries/archives on behalf of its members when such questions arise. For example, she reached out to Peter Hirtle, an archivist and Senior Policy Advisor to the Cornell University Library with a special mandate to address intellectual property issues, for advice regarding the Tulane proposal’s copyright issues. He was very gracious and he sent his response to Chris Hernández with very good advice. We should identify such experts and make sure that we at CRL/LAMP/LARRP are abreast of these issues and make that information available to all our members to help them when considering writing a proposal with an open access component.
John Wright, Brigham Young University: John asked if LARRP and LAMP could push for a series of seminar for faculty and students to promote LARRP and LAMP content/projects/collections. He felt that both LARRP and LAMP need to promote their work and collections. Melissa Guy (ASU), answered that she liked the idea of the seminars and that is something that the Communication and Outreach Working Group can explore more.
Lynn Shirey, Harvard University: Lynn asked for clarification if to apply for grant money from LAMP or LARRP, does the applicant need to be member of these groups or can non-members apply for funding? What about international applicants?
Judy Alspach, CRL: Judy said that they will like to encourage new memberships for either LAMP or LARRP since membership support the work of these groups but both groups will consider applications from non-members. Similarly, it is not require that international applicants be members but it helps a lot if they team up with a LAMP or LARRP member to help them with their application/project.
Molly Molloy, New Mexico State University: Molly had the last word before closing the panel. She explained that the advantage of membership is that the monies collected from the dues are used to fund all the great projects discussed today. The more members are in LAMP and/or LARRP the more projects can be funded.
Moderator: Ellen Jaramillo (Yale University)
Rapporteur: Richard Phillips (University of Florida)
Ellen Jaramillo (Yale University) warmly welcomed the audience of 25 and introduced the 3 panelists. Speaking first was Ricardo Souza de Carvalho from the Universidade de São Paulo, with a paper entitled: ” O acervo ibero-americano de um brasileiro nos Estados Unidos : a história da Oliveira Lima Library. “The second speaker was Pilar Moreno from Mexico’s Biblioteca Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (Universidad del Claustro de Sor Juana), who presented her paper: “ Uso y preservación de colecciones del patrimonio cultural brasileño y mexicano en la Biblioteca Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.” The final participant on this panel was Giuliana Ragusa from the Universidade de São Paulo with her talk: ” Biblioteca Brasiliana Mindlin: uma história de desafios ” ; questions followed.
Ricardo Souza de Carvalho traced the background and creation of the Oliveira Lima Library at Catholic University in Washington, DC. He spoke in animated terms of the life of Manoel de Oliveira Lima (1867-1928) and his passion for books and book collecting. Born in Recife, his youth in Portugal and Brazil was filled with a love of culture, especially history. He authored many books and journals. His work as a member of Brazil’s diplomatic corps took him to London, Bonn, Tokyo, Washington and other international capitals, and these assignments facilitated his acquisition and appreciation of rare and fine books, especially on the history of Brazil. In the early 1900s Oliveira Lima considered the placement of his personal book and manuscripts collection at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. following years of contact with that institution.
In 1916 he formally agreed with Bishop Thomas Shahan of Catholic University to move forward with that gift. Details negotiated with CU were to ensure that the donation would have a separate room that would carry his name – The Oliveira Lima Library – and that it would be processed promptly, and be an active and open research facility. This also was to include conservation of fragile manuscript items, archival organization of correspondence, staffing by knowledgeable curators, and on-going efforts to gain support for further development of these rare, unique intellectual resources. The original gift was some 40,000 volumes, plus many manuscripts, photos and art, and it now has grown to some 60,000 volumes. Support for that endeavor included testimonials from leading scholars, including Gilberto Freyre. Other universities such as Cambridge (UK) and Bonn (Germany) were also considered, but Catholic University was chosen.
Souza de Carvalho went on to reflect on the progress and on a number of frustrations and delays in the years following the creation of the Oliveira Lima Library. By the end of the 1920s large amounts of the collections has been given cataloging and bibliographic description. However, the handling of the Library was sometimes chaotic, in spite of the best intentions. Access was uneven, some of the holdings were moved to private hands, and others were still not fully known. World wars, and the economic depressions and downturns in the 1930s, and again in the 1950s, were also roadblocks. But, throughout the years the Oliveira Lima Library has remained a dedicated resource, now with a greater focus and support. Directors have been Mauricio Cardoso, Richard Morse, and current head Tom Cohen.
Today the Oliveira Lima Library at Catholic University is active in serving users from across the globe. Digital projects and efforts are bearing impressive success. Access is at: http://libraries.cua.edu/oliveiralima/; to paraphrase Souza de Carvalho, the Oliveira Lima Library at Catholic University is indispensable for research and study of Brazil.
Pilar Moreno described the holdings related to Brazil at the Biblioteca Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (Universidad del Claustro de Sor Juana) in México, D.F., citing with light humor how Brazil is sometimes viewed by Mexicans as a land of carnival and soccer, while Mexico is seen by Brazilians good heartedly as a country consuming chiles and telenovelas. Moreno then moved beyond those initial jokes and perspectives by tracking intellectual and cultural relations between the two societies since each gained independence in the 1820s. She looked at the early diplomatic representations and talks each nation held in Buenos Aires during those early independent years as a launch point between Brazil and Mexico that eventually grew to full ambassadorial exchanges, and that have become today’s on-going accords and agreements.
Moreno singled out symbolic manifestations over the years by the two nations: these included the gift of a statue of Cuauhtémoc by Mexico to Brazil and Rio de Janeiro in 1922 at the celebration of the centennial of Brazilian independence; and, the service of Alfonso Reyes as ambassador to Brazil for the much of the 1930s – a post from which Reyes directed programming to enhance Brazilian and Mexican interchanges. Significant notables that were active and effective in these efforts were Octavio Paz, João Goulart, Florestan Fernandes, Lula, Vicente Fox and a number of others. Current themes, to be sure, have moved beyond the cultural panorama and now feature migration, hemispheric security, science, technology, environmentalism, commerce and education as top priorities.
The library at the Universidad del Claustro de Sor Juana supports teaching and research, and holdings include books, journals and films ; there is an ambitious offering of Portuguese language instruction at the Universidad del Claustro de Sor Juana, training students in programs including Human Rights, Law, Audiovisual Communications, and the Humanities. For more, see http://www.ucsj.edu.mx ; NOTE : an impressive file of the sounds of Mexico [Sonoteca de Mexico] is in development.
The third panelist was Giuliana Ragusa from the Universidade de São Paulo with an interesting talk: ” Biblioteca Brasiliana Mindlin ” ; the BBM, she reported, was the project of Brazilian industrialist José Mindlin who devoted his life and fortune to the appreciation and acquisition of books, manuscripts, and other cultural items dealing with Brazil in all fashions. The BBM contains some 60,000 volumes and for years was housed in the personal home of the Mindlin family. In 2013 it was moved to a new, well-designed, low humidity special collections facility at USP.
Items of note in the BBM include a 1557 edition of the travel account of Hans Staden, many documents from Brazil’s imperial years of 1822-1889, and a fabulous array of original manuscripts from writers such as João Guimarães Rosa, Gilberto Freyre, and Padre Vieira. It is important to also note that José Mindlin supported contemporary writing and the arts generously, and served on editorial commission of the prominent Edusp publishing house as just one example.
BBM has a digital archive of some 3,000 titles, such as Gabriel Soares de Souza’s important Tratado : see http://www.bbm.usp.br/node/59
Questions in the limited time available were from Paul Losch (University of Florida) concerning the cataloging of the Biblioteca Brasiliana Mindlin loading into and appearing in OCLC; Ragusa was not certain, and this has not been verified. Next, Talía Guzmán-González (of Maryland) asked about the financial status of the BBM, and Ragusa replied that it is a part of USP’s library system, but funding for the future acquisition and purchase of rare materials is never certain.
Richard Phillips (U of Florida)
Moderator: Peter T. Johnson, Princeton University
Rapporteur: Holly Ackerman, Duke University
Stanley J. Stein, Walter Samuel Carpenter III Professor in Spanish Civilization and Culture and Professor of History, Emeritus, at Princeton University, is a lifelong Latin Americanist. Together with his late wife Barbara Hadley Stein, herself an accomplished bibliographer and historian of the region, Professor Stein wrote several books and articles that put their stamp on methods of writing the economic and political history of modern Latin America, specifically on the impact of colonialism and industrialism in Mexico and Brazil in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It is fair to say that no one studying Latin American history would fail to engage his work (The Americas 66:3/ January 2010).
Pedro Meira Monteiro is a professor of Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Cultures at Princeton University, where he teaches courses on Latin America with a special focus on literature and society in Brazil, ranging from fiction, poetry, essays, and music, to politics, race, and citizenship. In recent years Prof. Meira Monteiro’s research has developed around the intersection of intellectual history and literature. He has worked on multiple fronts, combining academic production with the writing of shorter texts for cultural magazines, blogs and newspapers.
Daryle Willams is Associate Professor of History at the University of Maryland. In addition to his teaching contributions to history and the Latin American studies certificate program, he served as director of the Committee on Africa and the Americas, associate director of the David C. Driskell Center, and director of graduate studies in history. A scholar of modern Latin America, Williams’ research specialty is Brazil. His first monograph, “Culture Wars in Brazil: The First Vargas Regime, 1930-1945,” won the American Historical Association’s prize for the best book in Latin American or Iberian history. In 2013 he was appointed Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs in the College of Arts and Humanities.
Stanley Stein began by saying that he offered two caveats on his presentation entitled Aspects of Field Research in Brazil; the first being that he would describe conditions from seventy years ago and the second being that his memory sometimes fails. That said, he set the scene by saying that he first arrived in Brazil in 1941 as a Harvard graduate student but his research was suspended upon joining the US Navy in 1943. After military service in Italy, he returned to Rio de Janeiro in June of 1948 after a thirteen day sea voyage with his wife (Barbara Hadley Stein), two year old daughter, two letters of introduction from colleagues at Harvard and his camera.
At that point he had been a doctoral student at Harvard for two years; was exposed to multiple disciplines and had read Afonso de E. Taunay’s multi-volume history of Brazilian coffee. He was interested in History, Anthropology and Economics and planned to study five different municipalities in Brazil over a period of fifteen months, photographing the process of deforestation going on at that time. He quickly saw that his agenda was too crowded and narrowed his study to one municipality – Vassouras.
Stein recalled meeting with Melville Herskovits prior to going to Brazil and was greatly influenced by Herskovits’ Life in a Haitian Valley. Herskovits advised him to prepare general discussion themes for each interview but never to take notes or photos during an interview but to make notes at once afterwards. He remembered sitting down in the roadside after interviews to make extensive notes.
Stein’s daily schedule in 1948 included working in the morning at the national archives and in the afternoon in the notarial archives. With the help of his wife Barbara, he met two gentlemen who were former slaves. These two informants became central to the field work. He recorded their slave chants called “jongos” which they shared with him. Although Stein used the jongos simply to search for general themes that preoccupied the slaves, he pointed out that these recordings eventually became important sources for the study of literary forms explored by a new generation of scholars including co-panelist Pedro Meira and other Brazilianists such as Michael Stone.
Pedro Meira Monteiro credited Stanley Stein as an inspirational force in his own work. He offered his presentation as a case study of how a project evolves and as a panoramic view of how sources are found and used. The project he described was a ten year quest to find and analyze correspondence between two Brazilian intellectuals – Mário de Andrade (1893-1945) and Sérgio Buarque de Holanda (1902-1982). The result is a book jointly published in 2012 by Companhia das Letras and the University of São Paulo (USP), in partnership with the Institute for Brazilian Studies at USP. It was also ten years where there was a change in the dynamics of annotation, thanks to what perhaps we can call the digital age.
Prof. Monteiro showed slides demonstrating the changing methods for explicating the correspondence. For example, notes were essential to create context for the reader regarding references in the letters and the world inhabited by the authors. This resulted in numerous and lengthy footnotes. The question for the author is: How far do you go in researching the context and, then, how much of your findings do you pass on to the reader? Also, what is the nature of the footnotes – are they encyclopedic? Time bound? – i.e., must explanation be limited to events and knowledge at the time the letters were written?
Additionally, the very nature of how one conducts research was changing over the decade while the study was in process, with digital sources and internet content expanding exponentially. This made it easier to find material but also pointed up the evolution of a kind of “common sense” in the Internet where errors are introduced and then rapidly shared. Dr. Monteiro suggests that future scholars may find themselves unraveling the errors of the Internet and points to the importance of preserving original sources to permit comparison and resolution.
One example offered of the process described above is a request made in a letter from Mario de Andrade to Sergio Buarque to assist in finding the population of Itu during a particular time period. Sergio refers him to a travel account by the naturalist Von Martius. This results in a discussion between the correspondents about the books they own and their relative value. Prof. Meira Monteiro then finds data on Mario’s indebtedness during the very time when he tells Sergio that he is unwilling to sell some of his most valuable books. And, Prof. Meira Monteiro also finds that one of those books recently sold for hundreds of thousands of dollars. What do these findings tell us about Andrade’s priorities, his status as a bibliophile and how might the information be included by the author?
Meira Monteiro proposed that the development of future critical production depends less on a technical breakthrough, and more on an intimacy with the digital world, which only the younger generations have. He concluded by saying that perhaps the function of the older generations of scholars is precisely to avoid throwing out the baby with the bath. After all, what will notes mean to future scholars who do not know how to slowly cultivate reading and research? What is the limit to the acceleration and multiplication of information? This seems to be our big question.
Daryle Williams began by acknowledging an intellectual debt to his co-panelists, stating that Stanley Stein was his first professor of Latin American & Caribbean Studies when he began his studies at Princeton. Peter Johnson was his professor in his junior year who taught him both substantive content and the importance of working with a librarian and Pedro Meira Monteiro helped him with important field work.
Professor Williams pointed out the often overlooked importance of general interest periodicals which is the format he then discussed. Although there was no local press in the Brazilian colonial period, by 1808 a press was working freely and the 19th Century saw a press relatively free of censorship. After 1850s the crônica became a typical Brazilian form. In the 1900s press censorship became heavy and even in the 1980’s newsstands were bombed to prevent circulation of material on the movement toward democracy.
In his own research Prof. Williams has found the National Library as the best source for this type of material along with some private archives consisting mainly of hard copies and microfilm. He reminded researchers that this is a manual process using outdated film and microfilm readers under conditions with poor electric connections which makes it a slow and tedious process. He is accustomed to limited lists and brief cataloging as well as narrow and deep searching of a single title.
Williams stressed the importance of evaluating the condition of materials to select the best site for research. For example, he goes to Campinas to use copies of film from Rio de Janeiro because the copy there is in better shape. Another valuable but overlooked source is clipping services. In the 1990s this type of source was proven useful when the Brazilian police opened their archives and he could see their clipping collections. He suggested that librarians think about useful ways to catalog this type of resource.
Around 2004, some of these sources began to be digitally available. O Globo led the way by digitizing in the 1990s and in 2002 government documents were released digitally along with out-of-print serials. This reintroduced researchers to some sources and also democratized who can conduct research by making things available without extensive travel. It widened the community of researchers and meant that research is not driven by headlines or page placement. With free-text searching, it is easy to follow individuals; to aggregate data such as price series and to incorporate many voices.
Time expired before questions could be asked.
June 15, 2015, 3:00-4:30 p.m.
Moderator: Ruby M. Gutiérrez, Hispanic American Periodical Index (HAPI)
Rapporteur: John B. Wright, Brigham Young University
Paloma Celis-Carbajal, University of Wisconsin-Madison: Acquiring Latin American Materials in the 21st Century: A Prelimnary Report on the Collection Development Trends Task Force,
Debra McKern, Library of Congress, Rio de Janeiro Office: Brazil’s Popular Groups: Acquiring the Grey Literature Collection at the Library of Congress
Jennifer Osorio, University of California, Los Angeles: Serials Acquisitions in the Digital ‘Future’: If It’s All Online, What’s the Problem?
Ruby Gutiérrez announced a change in order of the presentations: 1) Osorio, 2) McKern, and 3) Celis-Carbajal.
Osorio discussed the different models of open access in Latin America (LA) and the United States (U.S.). Through her presentation she discussed answers for the following questions: Is open access in LA the same as in the US? How are the models different? Which if any are the implications for libraries and collections of the rapid adoption of open access in LA? Are there dangers to the breakneck speed of open access adoption in LA? What is in the open access portals and what is not. She described the transformation of LA universities from the former state-building enterprise, describing how higher education in LA now follows more the US research model and gives more visibility to women and lower classes. She then discussed LA journals and their status in open access portals. In 2003, 40 percent of LA journals were available through open access, and in 2010, 74% of LA journals were available through open access. LA open access portals have similar requirements for inclusion that monitored inclusion in the LA print journals and are still largely funded by government agencies. In LA, the assumption is that inclusion in open access portals equals quality. She showed several tables that showed in general terms the differences of the open access model in LA and the US. She indicated that because of the open access model of favoring international issues over regional issues, hard sciences over social sciences, English over Spanish/Portuguese, Large communities over small communities, Generic coverage over specialized coverage, Well-funded and stable over struggling, that some specific consequences result. They are, 1) regional or provincial voices are lost, 2) new scholars do not have a real venue for getting their research out, 3) voices in other languages than the dominant languages are lost, 4) publications are underfunded and erratic. There appears to be a sense of neo-colonialism inherent in this type of model. The implications on developing LA collections, require that representative voices not included in the portals be sought out. Regional, national and local titles in collection must be prioritized and acquired. Also, research in other formats must be sought out as well.
McKern discussed the grey literature collection from Brazil’s popular groups at the Library of Congress and the ways in which the Rio Office tries to acquire these materials for its collection. These popular groups include: Agrarian reform; Children & youth; Education & communication; Environment & ecology; Ethnic groups: Blacks; Ethnic groups: Indian; Ethnic groups: Others; LGBT; Humanitarian & civil rights; Labor & laboring classes; Political parties & issues; Religions organizations, ecumenical groups and movements; Urban activism; and Women & feminists. She focused in on one group type “Environment & ecology” to illustrate some of the challenges for acquisition of materials. A lot of material is only available on Facebook, but some of it will always be available in print because it is intended to be handed out to people on the street who don’t have internet access. LC’s collections are searchable, but you have to buy the physical filter to get access to what you can find in a searchable index. The researcher cannot currently access the collection. They are talking with Princeton to learn about possibilities of piggybacking on Princeton’s Ephemeral Collection. She had some extra copies of material fitting into these popular groups that were available for collecting by anyone interested.
Celis-Carbajal presented a preliminary report of the Collection Development Trends Task Force which has the following members: Lief Adelson, Alejandra Cordero, Lynn Shirey, Sandra Saores, Miguel Valladares and Paloma Celis-Carbajal. The group grew out of the Librarian/Bookdealer/Publisher Committee at SALALM LVIII in Miami. The LARRP Survey and the attempts of Inter-Library Cooperation Committee to construct an overall picture of collection development going on has become very difficult to pull together. The Task Force has created a 20-question survey instrument to go out to all members of SALALM who have primary responsibility for collection development in their respective institutions. The results of the survey will not be published because obtaining clearance through an IRB would have been overly complicated. To date, two individuals have taken the survey and provided feedback to the Task Force. In the panel today, Celis-Carbajal invited the group to look at two specific questions and take two minutes to read and answer the question, giving the Task Force feedback on whether or not the two questions adequately obtained the desired solicited information. The group responded that it is odd to have the entire Caribbean in one group, while other countries are broken out separately. It was pointed out that not everyone can answer the specific question about vendors as it does not give enough options for adequately answering. It was also mentioned that the survey should be routed to whoever is most capable of answering the questions. Many of our libraries acquire materials through various ways. Many libraries decide on a particular vendor as a result of service provided, not necessarily if the vendor resides in the country being collected. The time period referred to in the survey instrument is not clear, i.e. actual year, fiscal year (and many institutions have a varied of fiscal year periods). The survey instrument instructs to select the “preferred” outcome, instead of the “actual” outcome. The group asked Celis-Carbajal to explain the goal of the survey. She responded that it is hoped that the survey can be done over successive years so that SALALM can understand trends over time. It was pointed out that it may be difficult because of the size of country/region covered in survey, size of institution doing the collecting. It was asked if we would be able to understand any of the changes in trends.
Ruby Gutiérrez (HAPI) asked Debra McKern how exactly the gathering of Brazil’s Popular Collections grey materials is accomplished and what are the difficulties in obtaining this material? McKern replied that the four acquisitions staff members from the LC Rio Office, some retired staff, and some staff in São Paulo go out on the streets to acquire the materials. They go out to the hinterlands to collect materials and say, “We are from the Library of Congress” and people respond “Really?”. Jennifer Osorio (UCLA) asked if our individual institutions can send to LC grey materials we obtain for inclusion in LC’s collection? McKern indicated that they would accept materials. McKern clarified that as they go collecting, they do not put themselves at risk. She used to take photographs of materials, but was told not to do that anymore by the US Consulate who indicated that it looked bad for someone to be taking photographs of this material. Miguel Valladares (University of Virginia) explained that he has the professors take grey literature obtained by him and use it in their classes. Gutiérrez (HAPI) asked Osorio if there was an index for LA open access journals/portals. HAPI has an index of which materials they index that is open access. Paloma Celis-Carbajal (U of Wisconsin-Madison) indicated that there is a LARRP proposal for open access. Mei Mendez (U of Miami) asked about literary journals and their availability in open access if social sciences are not well covered in portals. Osorio responded that it is hard to find literary journals and hard to collect them. Leif Adelson (Books from Mexico) mentioned that there is still a strong government connection with the panels that create/monitor the portals and that there really is a de-emphasis on the humanities and social sciences. Debra McKern (LC Rio Office) suggested that grey literature needs to be put in an archive, but wonders how best to divide it up. Should it just be in the categories or types that they are collecting? It seems that a web archive would work well for the serials.
Panelists: Hortensia Calvo, Tulane University
José Montelongo, University of Texas, Austin
M. Alejandra Plaza, Universidad Torcuato di Tella
Rapporteur: Brenda Salem, University of Pittsburgh
The panel, which had 21 attendees, dealt with the acquisition and/or discovery of literary collections at three different institutions that have proved to be highly valuable and even controversial. Each panelist discussed how their collection was acquired and why it is valuable to the study of Latin American literature.
The first presentation, titled, “Cartas de Lysi: Unpublished Letters from Sor Juana’s Mentor, María Luisa Manrique de Lara y Gonzaga” was given by Hortensia Calvo, the Executive Director of SALALM and the Doris Stone Librarian and Director of the Latin American Library at Tulane University.
The presentation dealt with the discovery of two previously unpublished handwritten letters by María Luisa Manrique de Lara y Gonzaga (1649-1729) in The Latin American Library’s manuscript collections. A Virreine of Mexico and Grandee of Spain, María Luisa Manrique de Lara is best known in the literary world as the friend and mentor of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, a towering figure in the Spanish language. The letters, which deal with a wide variety of topics, shed light into the daily lives of women from an elite social class in early modern Spanish America. They also give a somewhat clearer picture of the life of María Luisa Manrique de Lara herself, of which not much is known. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this finding is that one of the letters contains a personal account of Manrique de Lara’s friendship with Sor Juana. Calvo and her co-author, Beatriz Colombi, a professor of literature at the Universidad de Buenos Aires, have co-authored a book about the letters titled Cartas de Lysi: la mecenas de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz en correspondencia inédita (Madrid: Iberoamericana-Vervuert; Mexico: Bonilla Artigas Editores, 2015).
The letters were discovered in the Viceregal and Ecclesiastical Mexican Collection (VEMC), among the earliest manuscript collections acquired at Tulane’s Latin American Library. The collection is made up of 3,000 folders with mostly dispatches from viceroys, the Real Audiencia, and ecclesiastical administrative centers. It covers the years 1534-1919, with a majority of documents from the late colonial period. For more information, there is an extensive introduction by Michael Polushin on the Latin American Library’s website (http://archivolal.tulane.edu/?p=collections/controlcard&id=417). The collection was acquired by the Latin American Library in 1932. The bundle, or legajo in which the two letters by Maria Louisa were found contains 95 pieces of correspondence, mostly official reports written by Mexican Viceroys and other members of the Spanish nobility but a few are personal, covering the years 1589-1820.
Calvo talked about the reasons why these letters were not identified until now. One of the reasons is that while the rest of the VEMC has been extensively cataloged and described, the legajo containing the letters bear only very basic descriptions. Also, the handwriting is very difficult to read so it would have been difficult to immediately ascertain the contents of the letter. Moreover, the subject of interest to literary historians, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, who is referred to as “una monja jerónima,” is not mentioned until page 12 of the longest letter. Most of all, at the time the letters were acquired, women’s studies and the study of Baroque aesthetics were not a focus of interest. Also, the name of María Luisa Manrique de Lara y Gonzaga was not very recognizable at the time. Interest in the Baroque only came about with the Generation of ’27 in Spain. Calvo feels that this case of two documents that were preserved but sat in an archive without being discovered for such a long time teaches us about the forces that shape archives and how archival organizations play a very important role in shaping the production of knowledge.
Calvo went on to give an overview of the content of the letters. The two letters contain a total of 23 handwritten pages. The earliest is dated December 30, 1682 and is addressed to María de Guadalupe de Lencastre, Duchess of Aveiro, a cousin of María Luisa residing in Spain, who was a formidable person in her own right. Calvo gave a brief background on the Duchess of Aveiro and mentioned that the book contains a biography of her. It is in this letter that María Luisa mentions Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. The second letter, dated July 29, 1685 is a shorter, more hastily-written letter addressed to Maria Luisa’s father, Vespasiano Gonzaga, Duke of Guastalla, who lived in Madrid. The letters are very personal in nature and give a glimpse into María Luisa’s thoughts, feelings, and opinions of the New World. She also wrote details of domestic life in the palace. Her views of Indian life are paternalistic in tone, but differ from those of many of her contemporaries in that they convey a positive view of natives. Calvo read the passage in the letter in which María Luisa describes in wonder the circumstances and “supernatural” intelligence of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. María Luisa would often visit Sor Juana and Calvo posits that Sor Juana, who wrote in Nahuatl and was familiar with the local culture, could have served as a bridge for María Luisa to the local customs of the native population. Another remarkable aspect of the letter is that the personal information María Luisa gives about the Mexican nun is quite similar to the biographical information written by the Jesuit Diego Calleja that appears in Fama y obras póstumas (first published in 1700) and to autobiographical information written by Sor Juana herself in “Respuesta a Sor Filotea.” The passage in the Latin American Library’s letter establishes María Luisa, in her role as Sor Juana’s patron and promoter, as someone helping to bring about the narrative of her life as it has come to be known today and shows that even while Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was still alive, an early version of her public persona was already taking shape.
Calvo concluded by saying that the letters give a clearer picture of the figure of María Luisa Manrique de Lara y Gonzaga, and shed light on her much-speculated relationship with the famous writer Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. The letters show that Manrique de Lara y Gonzaga was literate, intellectually curious, and with a sense of humor. It would not have been surprising to see that these characteristics would have been compatible with those of the highly intelligent and intellectual Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.
The second presentation was titled, “The Controversy over the Gabriel García Márquez Archive” and was given by José Montelongo, the Mexican Materials Bibliographer at the University of Texas, Austin. Montelongo opened the presentation by talking about the 2015 Feria Internacional del Libro de Bogotá, whose official featured country was the fictional town of Macondo from Gabriel García Marquez’s “100 Years of Solitude.” He described the book fair’s wildly popular pavilion, which paid tribute to the late Colombian author. He used this description to show just how admired and revered García Marquez is in his native Colombia and why there was such shock several months before in November 2014 when it was announced in the New York Times that his archive would be housed at the University of Texas, Austin, in the United States. The shock was such that Consuelo Gaytan, the head of the National Library of Colombia was questioned on national television about why García Marquez’s collection was “lost” to the American university. Having been caught unaware by the announcement, news outlets were trying desperately to find answers regarding the acquisition. The purpose of Montelongo’s presentation, therefore, was to recount a talk he gave with UT professor Gabriela Polit as guest speakers at the 2015 Feria Internacional del Libro de Bogotá to which they had been invited to answer the question of why Garcia Marquez’s archive went to the University of Texas, Austin.
He began by explaining that UT Austin had been committed to Latin American studies well before there was a possibility of acquiring García Marquez’s archive. The university has over 150 faculty members that engage with Latin American in their research, by traveling to Latin America, publishing along with their Latin American peers, and bringing some of their students to Latin America. In fact, many students from all over the United States and the rest of the world choose to attend UT Austin precisely because of its strong focus on Latin American studies. Moreover, the library has been acquiring Latin American materials for its Benson Latin American Collection for almost 100 years and the Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies (formerly the Institute of Latin American Studies) has been dedicated to the study of Latin America for almost 80 years. The University of Texas’ Harry Ransom Center, where the collection is now housed, has collections from authors whose works García Marquez counted among his influences, such as James Joyce, William Faulkner, and Virginia Wolfe. Montelongo felt that García Marquez would have been honored to have his work housed alongside of the work of those authors he admired. He would have liked to have started the talk by outlining the contents of the collection, which he had a chance to see, but the collection’s monetary value was addressed first. As a public institution, the University of Texas was required by law to disclose the cost of the collection, but the head of the Harry Ransom Center petitioned the state attorney to be exempt from having to disclose the price because it was felt that disclosure would negatively affect UT in future negotiations in comparison to private institutions, which are not required to disclose the prices of their acquisitions. However, the petition was denied and in February of 2015 the price of the collection was revealed to have been 2.2 million dollars. While it is considered less expensive compared to the known prices of other famous collections, Montelongo emphasized that the price of a collection takes into consideration many factors such as the size and completeness of a collection as well as its importance to history.
Montelongo also revealed that there was no auction. Instead, there was an exclusive negotiation between the University of Texas and García Marquez’s family. The sale of the García Marquez archive by the late author’s family to UT Austin was not simply motivated by money. It was also a matter of entrusting their family member’s legacy to an institution with the experience and the continuous financial support to take good care of it for many years to come. Moreover, it was a matter of leaving the collection to an institution that is relatively shielded from political turmoil, unlike many institutions in Latin America. Montelongo addressed the sentiment expressed by many, such as García Marquez biographer Gerald Martin, that the late author’s archives shouldn’t be housed in a country where he was banned from entering for many years. Montelongo maintained that García Marquez’s relationship to the United States had changed over the years. By the 1990s, he had been invited to meet with President Bill Clinton and dine with him at the White House. In fact, he had personal ties to the United States. In the early 2000’s, he went to Los Angeles for cancer treatment and it was there that he finished his memoir “Vivir Para Contarla.” Currently, his son is living in California, where he produces movies and TV shows.
While there are many good reasons why the archive went to UT Austin, Montelongo acknowledges that there are many perspectives on the acquistion. Things might look different to people like the head of the Colombian National Library, who has to answer questions about why García Marquez’s archive didn’t end up in his native country and to Colombian researchers who will have to take on the complications of leaving the country to study their own fellow countryman. Things might also look different from the perspective of a Latin American librarian working in the United States with collections from his or her native country. The reaction of the public can be seen on the Internet in comments to online news articles about the acquisition. Many have said that the collection should have been put up for international auction and that García Marquez’s family had no right to sell the archive to UT Austin without giving Colombia a chance to make an offer. Montelongo feels that indeed, the Colombian government might have been willing to offer more money than the amount that UT Austin paid, had they been given the chance, and that the collection would have been well taken care of in Colombia.
Montelongo related an article written in the El Universal newspaper by a literary critic who has done research in both Mexico and the United States. In this article, both the Harry Ransom Center and Princeton’s own Firestone Library are mentioned as having excellent archival collections that are very valuable to literary critics. This critic laments that while Mexico invests money in culture and celebrates its national literary figures, it does not have an institution with the funding to properly house and preserve its national literary heritage the way that Princeton and UT Austin do.
Montelongo then mentioned that at the end of October, UT Austin will be celebrating the acquisition of the García Marquez collection with a symposium co-sponsored by LLILAS-Benson and the Harry Ransom Center. Among the speakers at the symposium will be Salman Rushdie, Elena Poniatowska, and also numerous Colombian writers, academics, and government officials. There are also plans to digitize part of the collection.
Montelongo concluded by saying that at UT Austin they understand how desirable it would be for Latin America to develop its own abilities and resources to house and preserve its literary heritage in the countries where they were created.
The third presentation, titled “La Colección ‘J.J. Hernández – J. Bianco’ en la Biblioteca de la Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina” was given in Spanish by M. Alejandra Plaza, the director of the Universidad Torcuato Di Tella Library. It dealt with the J.J. Hernández – J. Bianco Collection at the Torcuato Di Tella University Library in Argentina. She started by giving a brief description of the Torcuato Di Tella University, a private university of about 5,000 students that has been around for only 25 years. Its library, housed in a single building, focuses on social sciences, humanities, as well as on the other fields of study at the university. It began as the library for the Institutio Torcuato Di Tella, which was founded in 1958, so the library, which has become valued within Argentina and Latin America, is older than the university it serves.
In 2008, the heirs of Argentinian author Juan José Hernández approached the university about donating his personal library to the Torcuato Di Tella library. Being the personal library of a writer, its main focus was on literature and contained the complete run of the literary journal Sur, which was, as far as it was known the time, one of the most valuable parts of the collection. At the time, there was no library director so the collection was appraised by two professors from their history department. By the time Plaza stepped in as library director, the donation had been completed. Plaza gave some background on Juan José Hernández, a poet, writer, and translator who was from the Tucumán province. She also listed some of his more well-known works.
The 3500 items in the collection consist mostly of books and periodical issues. Even though the library was short-staffed and had no director, it accepted the donation anyway. The two professors, Karina Galperín, who specializes in literature and Fernando Rocchi, who specializes in history, appraised the collection in its original location in Buenos Aires and found it to be valuable, but in retrospect, they didn’t realize just how valuable it was. The collection arrived at the Torcuato Di Tella Library in boxes in 2008 but it wasn’t until 2010 that they were able to process it. As the collection was being processed, some of the collection’s treasures began to emerge. Not only did the collection contain the complete run of the literary journal Sur, the issues had hand-written marginalia and annotations by its editor José Bianco. Among the treasures in the collection was a copy from a small 1968 print run of a French translation of “Historias de cronopios y de famas” by Julio Cortazar. In it, there is an inscription dedicated to José Bianco written by the author. Plaza and the staff who processed the collection came to realize that Jose Bianco also had a large part in the formation of the collection and that this personal library was in fact, a library that was built over time by both Hernández and Bianco. José Bianco, was a writer, essayist, translator, and as previously mentioned, the editor of the literary journal Sur. Plaza also listed some of his more well-known works. The collection not only contains an excellent selection of literary works that reflect the two authors’ areas of interest, these works are fully annotated with their comments that Plaza likened to a dialog with the books. Moreover, 250-300 of the books have inscriptions written on them by various well-known contemporary authors such as Victoria Ocampo and Carlos Fuentes. This shows that while Juan José Hernández and José Bianco may not have been the best known authors in Latin America or even within Argentina, they were respected and held in high regard by their more famous contemporaries. Plaza went over the timeline of the processing of the collection, which was renamed the “Juan José Hernández-José Bianco” Collection in 2010. In 2011, they received a grant from the Programa para Bibliotecas y Archivos Latinoamericanos (PLALA) to process the collection. From 2011-2012, the inscriptions were digitized and in 2013, conservation work was done on the most deteriorated books. From 2014-2015, the collection was cataloged and made available in their online catalog. Plaza demonstrated slides of some of the digitized book inscriptions as well as examples of the annotations that are found in many of the books. In light of the Brazilian theme of the conference, Plaza mentioned another valuable item in the collection, which is a copy of a memoir titled “Orgia” by Argentinian author Túlio Carella that was published in Brazil. Previously, the printing of this book had been considered a myth because no copies had ever been found. Plaza briefly mentioned three researchers of note who have extensively used the collection for their research. She also listed the names of the people who worked at different times on the various aspects of processing the collection. Out of the seven people who worked on it, 3 were permanent library staff and the rest were hired specifically for the processing of the collection. Part of the funding came from the PLALA grant and the rest came from the Torcuato Di Tella University. Plaza concluded by thanking PLALA for their funding, Karina Galperín and Fernando Rocchi for assessing the collection, and Ernesto Montequin, a librarian at Villa Ocampo, for helping to identify inscriptions and annotations.
During the question and answer session, Diana Restrepo (Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango) expressed her concern regarding the acquisition of the García Marquez archive by UT Austin. She felt that García Marquez’s family should have considered other Colombian institutions that could have housed the collection and have kept in mind the accessibility of the collection by the Colombian people. She also took the time to highlight her institution’s important literary collections, particularly two recent acquisitions that came from outside the country.
Hortensia Calvo (Tulane University) turned to José Montelongo (University of Texas, Austin) and commented that in his presentation, he seemed to imply that García Marquez’s family didn’t want to offer the archive to Colombia. Montelongo explained that the family approached the Harry Ransom Center while García Marquez’s was still alive. While it did not seem that the writer was opposed to the idea of his archive being entrusted to UT Austin, ultimately it was the decision of his widow and children. Montelongo reitirated that the collection would have been well taken care of and made accessible in a Colombian or Mexican institution. He also seemed to think that his family would have gotten more money by selling his archive to a Colombian institution or even to another institution in the United States, which made him come to the conclusion that the decision was not solely based on money. While money counts for a lot and motivates a lot of authors who made an intermittent living as freelancers, in the case of García Marquez’s family, there other reasons and motivations for trusting UT Austin over Latin American institutions.
Calvo expressed her appreciation for Montelongo’s presentation, considering how controversial a topic he was covering. As a Colombian, she understands the conflict that comes with being from Latin America working with Latin American collections in the United States. She also complimented him on the way he conveyed Colombia’s admiration for the late author by describing the scene at the Bogotá book fair. Montelongo explained that this topic has been discussed informally among SALALM members and is a sort of “elephant in the room,” so he felt that it was something that needed to be discussed more formally and openly. He wanted to emphasize that “trust” meant not just trusting the political stability of an institution’s country, but also trust that a collection will have reliable and continuous source of funding to preserve it for years to come.
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