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June 17, 2015, 8:30 am-10:00 am, East Pyne 027, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
Moderator: Lynn M. Shirey, Harvard University
Rapporteur: Joseph Holub, University of Pennsylvania
Jill Baron, Dartmouth College
& Fernando Acosta-Rodríguez, Princeton University
Divide and Conquer Brazil: A New Approach to Cooperative Collection Development within the Borrow Direct Consortium
Rebecca K. Friedman, Princeton University
Ivies+ Art & Architecture Group: Tackling Contemporary Art Publications from Latin America
Thomas Keenan, Princeton University
Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union and the Challenges of Inter-Consortial Cooperative Collecting
Darwin F. Scott, Princeton University
The Borrow Direct Contemporary Composers Cooperative Collection Plan
Jill Baron (Dartmouth) and Fernando Acosta- Rodríguez (Princeton) described the agreement of a number of Borrow Direct libraries to share coverage of the academic publishing output of Brazil. The focus on Brazil stems from the country’s status as the largest Latin American country, the ninth largest publishing country in the world, and a growing interest in Brazilian studies. The libraries’ major Brazilian vendors have estimated that the country produces approximately 5,000 academic (or titles of interest to academic libraries) titles annually. Meanwhile, an analysis of Borrow Direct holdings using OCLC showed that Harvard, which acquires the largest number of Brazilian titles of all members of the Borrow Direct group, has been capturing about half of Brazilian titles. The numbers were compared to peer institutions, including New York Public, Texas Austin, and the Library of Congress, and they were found to be far fewer than those acquired by the University of São Paulo. Overall, US libraries do not approach comprehensiveness in their Brazilian collections.
The Brazil Borrow Direct group participants include Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Duke, Harvard, Princeton, the University of Chicago, the University of Pennsylvania, and Yale. The group aims to increase the diversity and depth of their combined Brazilian book collections, improve coverage of small publishers, reduce lacunae and redundancy, and make long-term commitments to the program. It does not specifically aim to reduce duplication, however. Each institution commits to working with a vendor of its choice (there are effectively two major vendors for Brazilian academic books) to cover a specific state or group of states. The group felt that using more than one vendor will help support the diversity of their acquisitions and, in any case, the freedom to use a preferred vendor was an incentive for each institution. Vendors provided estimates on academic publishing and costs for each state. For each state the library will acquire all books of an academic nature that fall within agreed upon subject limits (primarily monographs in the social sciences and humanities), although libraries are free to collect beyond those boundaries. Only the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo are excluded from the agreement, since these are the two largest publishing centers of the country and their output has been more consistently acquired than other cities, states and regions. The libraries had to make estimates of what they would be able to spend as well.
The Borrow Direct Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for Brazil was signed in 2014; all libraries agreed to start collecting from their state(s) starting with 2015, but were free to acquire earlier years. The libraries are committed to good preservation practices, including replacing lost or damaged items. It is still too early to assess the success of the program, and there are some concerns about the potential for cataloging backlogs.
The Brazil project has taken its inspiration from a number of other collaborative collection activities undertaken by Borrow Direct librarians. Rebecca Friedman (Princeton), who is Assistant Librarian of the Marquand Library of Art and Archaeology and Librarian for the School of Architecture Library, explained the details of the 2012 agreement developed by the Ivies Plus Art and Architecture Group. Collaboration was impelled by the realization that no one collection could keep up with an increasingly globalized art scene, and collections data showed slow growth collecting outside traditional areas. They sought to expand their collections beyond the art of North America and Western Europe. The first initiative of the group has been to focus on the visual arts since 1975 in Latin America, as each of the five participating institutions (Columbia, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Princeton, Chicago) took responsibility for individual countries. Their evaluation was that Latin America represented a less complicated first step in collecting outside traditional areas than, for example, Africa. The focus has been on contemporary art. They excluded architecture and design, which are more difficult to divide by country. The country(ies) chosen by each library is generally consistent with the already existing focus of the library.
A number of the libraries were already using Karno Books for their Latin American acquisitions, but they are investigating other vendors in order to diversify collections, including using more than one vendor (contrary to current trends) for the same institution. Collective responsibility is a positive aspect of the project, but there are some questions about to how to adapt to the addition of new members. There is also a question whether this group is best situated for covering Latin America. For example, it would be helpful to compare holdings to some known for the strength of their Latin American collections: the Museum of Modern Art, the Houston Museum of Fine Arts, the University of Texas-Austin – and it might make sense to work with one or more of those libraries.
They used the Borrow Direct Music group as a model in composing the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). Each group member commits to an internal annual report. The members are committed to timely acquisitions and preservation, but there are cataloging challenges and a need to track initiatives. Assessment at this juncture is difficult, and they need to develop metrics for evaluation. Meanwhile, web archiving is another likely project for the group.
Thomas Keenan (Princeton) described the collaborative activities of librarians in what is known as the SEEES (Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies) fields. The area covered includes 27 nation states and 28 major languages (from eight different language families) and corresponds to the area of the old Soviet Union and the Soviet bloc. It is difficult for any one institution to cover such a wide area, and the difficulty is compounded by the fact that the focus of the librarians and the collections has typically been Slavic or Russo-centric. As research interests in SEEES change, including more interest in areas where non-Slavic languages are spoken, collections are unable to keep pace. There is a need to collect in languages other than Russian, especially the non-Slavic languages, and to focus on low-demand items and free up those that collect idiosyncratic materials. Some of this interest comes from students from the old Soviet republics or from Eastern Europe who want to work in those areas and in those languages. Russo-centric scholars, too, sometimes develop interest in non-Russian topics.
Keenan said that when he came to Princeton two years earlier, there was already discussion of collaborative activities to encourage more specialized collecting and reduce redundancy. The BorrowDirect SEEES group has been in discussions, but have not yet been able to initiate an agreement, in part because of the many variables involved, including personnel changes. As BorrowDirect increases its membership, a single copy distributive plan is no longer sufficient (the goal would be 2-3 copies within the group).
The discussion occurred not only in Borrow Direct, but in other cooperative platforms, such as ReCAP, the Research Collections and Preservation Consortium (which includes a storage facility located near Princeton) shared by Princeton, Columbia University, and the New York Public Library. Plus, the Cornell-Columbia shared bibliographer experiment had been underway since 2009. It has been easier to work within the smaller group, which came up with a single copy plan for lower demand monographs for the four institutions (NYPL, Princeton, Columbia, plus Cornell). Higher demand items published in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and parts of Ukraine are excluded from the single copy plan. The program also employs a lead-institution model, so that the institution with a strong collection and/or a high level of scholarly activity will acquire the bulk of titles in a specific area. For example, New York Public Library, because of its historically significant Baltic collections, collects most monographs originating in the Baltic republics. Two libraries have also cooperated on some subject areas of interest to both (e.g., archaeology shared between Princeton and Cornell).
There has also been SEEES cooperation within MaRLI (Manhattan Research Library Initiative), which is a project of the New York Public Library, Columbia University Libraries, and New York University Libraries, that seeks to expand collections.
A major challenge in all collaborative ventures is to produce an MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) that can satisfy all institutions – a handshake is not sufficient – the administrations and general counsels. Despite the larger size of the Borrow Direct group, it offers a shared discovery and delivery mechanism that does not obtain for ReCap and the MRL initiative. For the moment cooperation with Borrow Direct partners will be conducted informally, and there is consideration of bringing in Yale and Brown on discussions with Columbia, Cornell and Princeton.
Darwin Scott (Princeton) described the Borrow Direct Music Librarians Group, which pioneered the model for subsequent Borrow Direct collaborations. There was a strong foundation for the project in the Music Library Association, which includes regional groups. Scott also sees a predilection for collaboration among music librarians that comes out of the experience of musical performance. Borrow Direct librarians began meeting at the MLA as early as 2004-2005, and later decided to focus on contemporary (post 1975) music, with particular emphasis on second-tier composers, whose work had been duplicated in many cases, or not collected at all. They had found that nearly every library was buying the same works by a second-tier composer, but none acquired the composer’s other works. Thus, it was decided that each library would collect specific composers comprehensively.
Between 2009 and early 2012 the group put together a list of ca. 1500 composers, most active after 1975, and used approvals with Theodore Front and Harrassowitz to implement the collecting strategy. Scott emphasized that this cannot work without a cooperative vendor. In 2011 the group accommodated Harvard and MIT as they joined Borrow Direct, and in 2013 the University of Chicago and Johns Hopkins (with Peabody and its extraordinary scores holdings) joined and, later, Duke.
The Memorandum of Understanding of 2012 specified the collecting of scores by 20th and 21st century composers. There have been some tweaks since. Some libraries had to cut back their collecting, some composers are collected comprehensively by 3-4 libraries, and younger composers have been added to the list.
In 2013 the group saw the launch of CCWA (Contemporary Composers Web Archive) hosted at Columbia and with Mellon support. The idea for CCWA came from a presentation of Columbia’s Human Rights Web Archive. The composer archiving project fit into the infrastructure already developed at Columbia. Fifty-six sites are already in the archive, which Columbia catalogs in OCLC – and are loaded into the Princeton catalog in turn. A mechanism is in place to fast-track the archiving of websites when composers die. The group is facing how to continue funding, which may involve every member contributing to Columbia’s housing and management.
Scott added a recommendation to the group to let OCLC know how important WorldCat is to collection development work, which would be threatened by OCLC’s new discovery system, a potential disaster for collection development.
Denise Hibay (New York Public Library) praises the reports and reassures Thomas Keegan that the development of the discovery layer for the ReCap collection is proceeding and hopes to have it running in three years. There are new grant proposals in motion that, if successful, can help provide the infrastructure to create a consistent approach to these kinds of agreements. She also has a question for the Brazil project about its stated position that it does not aim to reduce duplication and about the need to preserve unique titles. Jill Baron noted that some are including tags in the catalog records that flag the Borrow Direct items to keep their relative scarcity in mind when making preservation and deaccession decisions. Acosta-Rodríguez added that there is no requirement to add cataloging notes and the language of the agreement is unspecific, but there is an assumption that each institution will be responsible to the group for the materials it acquires. Lynn Shirey pointed out that, if the group sought to radically reduce duplication, it could damage our vendors’ viability.
Miguel Valladares (University of Virginia) said that he was fairly familiar with all the projects except the SEEES agreements described by Thomas Keegan. He asked that, if reaching a 100% collecting level is the objective of collaborative acquisitions programs, how can a small program, such as ReCAP, be adequate. Keegan responded that there was no expectation that the four institutions in ReCAP would approach 100%. It is viewed as a first step, but one part of the plan specifies that no participant is reducing its collecting. In fact, participants are expanding their collections. Working within BorrowDirect can improve coverage further, although Keenan reiterated his belief that BorrowDirect is too large for a single-copy model. Valladares also asked if ASEES (Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies) is similar to SALALM. Keenan responded in the affirmative and added that there is also AATSEEL (American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages), as well as regional organizations.
David Magier (Princeton) added that he does not encourage speaking of a goal of acquiring 100% — or “everything” — of all research relevant publications. He prefers to ask what we can do to expand our collections. We should think of expanding collections, rather than comprehensiveness, as success. There is a question, too, of finding a balance between duplication and diversifying holdings. Any collaborative program must also take into account political issues, e.g., faculty might not accept reducing the collection of duplicates if it means not getting works by one or another author or a specific subject. He also points out that we have to be concerned about overspending in the quest to expand collections. As for preservation, he thinks we should not worry too much: we need to trust in the responsibility of research libraries when making decisions about old, fragile items. He trusts that these institutions will take care of unique items.
Pedro Huayhua (Ventara – Librería García Cambeiro) reminded everyone that the booksellers are participants in the collaborative process. His company is the supplier for a number of the institutions signatory to the Brazil project. He pointed out how the changing book trade environment has affected the vendors’ ability to work within the parameters established by the new agreements. In the past the vendor could sell 30-40 of any one title. In the past ten years 5-7 copies are more typical. He sees BorrowDirect’s goals to be preservation and the expansion of coverage. He suggested that 60,000 books are published in Brazil annually, but only ten percent are useful to academic libraries. The consortium should have those 6,000 books, but the largest library in the group is only acquiring 2500 titles and the group about 4000. It is difficult to acquire the remaining 2000.
Moderator: Bronwen K. Maxson, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)
Rapporteur: Viviane Ferreira de Faria, University of New Mexico
Daniel Schoorl on behalf of Orchid Mazurkiewicz, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI)
Lost in Translation/Traducción/Tradução: Building a Trilingual HAPI
Wendy Pedersen, University of New Mexico
Discovery through Acquisitions: Colonizing WorldCat with WMS
Timothy Thompson, Princeton University
Descrever é preciso: Adding Item-level Metadata to the Leila Míccolis
Brazilian Alternative Press Collection at the University of Miami Libraries
Daniel Schoorl presented on behalf of Orchid Mazurkiewicz. The moderator presented Daniel Schoorl’s biography and Orchid Mazurkiewicz’s biography. They have been working together since 2009.
Daniel introduced the presentation by presenting a short description of HAPI. Last fall HAPI’s new version was launched in English, Spanish and Portuguese and the new indexing is inspired by the American Model.
Daniel provided the description of the 1st version of HAPI online, launched in 1997. He also provided a description of the 2nd version, launched in 2007. As he compared the two versions, Daniel established that the 2007 version of HAPI online, with interface changes in Spanish and Portuguese, had the same to offer in terms of subject headings plus the terms in Spanish and Portuguese as the version of 1997, redirecting to the English subheadings. They added a new heading and also modified all headings.
Then, Daniel moved on to presenting the new version, which is also trilingual. This version allows for the trilingual search with autocomplete prompts. It also has a smaller amount in French, German and Italian.
The presenter stated that the way people used HAPI drastically changed, thus the trilingual version change was driven by a desire to provide greater content accessibility to Spanish and Portuguese users. According to the presenter, the new HAPI provides Spanish and Portuguese translations of the main subject headings. Apart from being trilingual, the major shift in this new version involves translations of complete subject thesaurus, making it now possible for trilingual subject searching. Thus, in whichever language version, it will seek all the three languages versions of the subject heading. You can search any of the subjects in one language – autocomplete prompts – and you will see the subheading in any of those languages.
As their work showed, the real shift resides in doing away with English as a dominant language and creating this trilingual subject file, with translations of all subject headings and subdivisions. Considering the international standards for developing multilingual thesauri and, when we discuss these standards, there are basically three types of issues to be addressed: administrative, linguistic and technological. The creation of a multilingual thesaurus involved providing equal treatment of all languages. It should be a fully developed thesaurus, structured with all semantic relationships as prevalence, affinity and hierarchy. The idea to create this was to build a thesaurus in each language without reference to the terms or structure of an existent thesaurus. In this sense, the source language becomes the dominant language with a result of the target languages adequately reflecting it (the dominant one) in the target cultures. As a monolingual thesaurus is always culturally biased, the straight translation might be considered a form of cultural imperialism. It’s a management decision, and often the choice made is to use the already existing thesaurus for obviously economic reasons. There is an English thesaurus with a number of translations for main terms, but when it comes to terminology, when languages have equal status, every preferred term in one of those languages should be matched by a good one. Thus, there are decisions to make to avoid literal translations from the source language into meaningless expressions into the target language.
The presenter reinforced the importance to take the following issues into consideration: prevalence issues (for instance, when the target language does not contain a term that corresponds in meaning to the source language) and technological issues (because a developer might say that, when it comes to technology, almost anything is doable and it is just a question of what you can afford). In the light of such considerations, their project aimed at the creation of a text structure that could provide the maximum flexibility that they could afford.
In 2013, a new editorial platform for HAPI was created: HAPI Central. The system completely transformed the way that data and the editorial process were managed. Daniel showed the record for political campaigns with Portuguese and Spanish translations. Since the indexing was done into only one language, there was the need to identify terms in every language and apply them separately, but at the same time it allowed for multilingual searching and across all three languages as the terms are all connected. So for example, someone doesn’t have to be in a Spanish version of the database to successfully perform a search using Spanish subheadings.
According to the presenter, the weakness of the structure is that it offers little flexibility in dealing with issues when there is no one to one equivalence between terms. The data structure is relational, so each index article points to the subject heading record associated with it and the trilingual display is very simple. Daniel showed an example containing the same article in three layers of HAPI Central.
Daniel described the process for creating subheading translations. He also exemplified the complexity of the process by highlighting the existence of numerous headings for specific indigenous groups. The process to create these subheadings involved consulting the Brazilian National Library (Portuguese Language); Mexican National libraries (Spanish Language) and the Library of Congress (English Language) as well as the and lsch-es.org website. Their team had to make decisions among the different options and they come up with headings of their own, they looked for literature they found at HAPI and terminology found on the web. They had a list reviewed by a translation company that uses native speakers. HAPI staff then reviewed the list. Overall the process took 5 to 6 months to translate around 3000 headings, including subdivisions.
Daniel also touched on a couple of issues that posed difficulties during the process. For instance, the presenter mentioned that the standard does not require structure, but the HAPI system does. The presenter used the term land reform (agrarian reform) as an example of duplicating and creating a circular reference through non preferred direct translations. He also used the small business term ‘pequenas e médias empresas’ to demonstrate the comprehensive approach of HAPI to the translations. Another example is the case of ‘biomass energy’ (biofuel and biogas) whose translation (‘biocombustíveis’) in the HAPI update is supported by crossing information with the Brazilian National Library. In another example, they decided to use the Spanish term ‘comunidad andina’ as the preferred heading instead of using the original term ‘Indian community’ in the old system. It was advantageous to change the original heading to the English version, now there are three different versions of the term and they found all references associated with the term.
The presenter closed with a brief overview of what is ahead for HAPI. With a browse subjects option, one can search for different keywords and see the preferred or used headings as well as redirect for non-preferred terms (eg: from Healthcare to Health).
Wendy Pedersen, University of New Mexico
Discovery through Acquisitions: Colonizing WorldCat with WMS
Wendy Pedersen was introduced by the moderator and presented her biography.
The presenter introduced the topic of the presentation by defining WMS – WorldShare Management Systems: a web/cloud-based system that no longer requires a local server, filing updates nor overlay docs imports. WMS was acquired for a consortium of 17 libraries to replace III Millennium, which was client-based and maintained on servers at UNM.
According to the presenter, the change to WMS has required the UNM librarians to internalize certain changes to the vocabulary of acquisitions and cataloging. Wendy used a comparative approach to provide the correspondence of vocab between the old system and WMS. For instance, Integrated Library Services platform (ILS) is now Library Services Platform (LSP). Another change regards the transition from having a catalogue record to utilizing metadata instead. Also, in the new system, receiving is cataloging and cataloging is receiving.
As Wendy pointed out, when it is necessary to make an order, one performs a search in the backend interface, discovering items and searching WorldCat. The system comes up with various options and, with some luck, the item will immediately be available in WorldCat. And, once the item is found, one can just add it to the order. Moreover, the acquisition ordering staff are trained to pick the best record, and it is very much like copy cataloging. According to Wendy, there are several things that the new system allows the acquisition ordering staff to do, for instance: they can add it to a purchase order, apply a template when necessary, add fun, change the process entirely from zero to monograph, put in the shelving location if it is known, etc. However, WMS will not provide information regarding the date in which the book/item was actually received. Because the term ‘receiving’ means something else in WMS, Wendy and her team had to think of other ways to express it, especially when the physical pieces came into the building. As the situation surfaced at times, they called it ‘checking in’.
Wendy stated that, in the catalog, the receiving function actually pulls up the record and gives you a code number. Thus, when you put in the barcode and hit enter, you are in the catalog and you are done. From then on, Wendy walked us through the process of changing the location of an item in WMS if need be. She also explained how to verify whether the record being displayed is correct or not. The presenter also showed that the system allows for messages to be added as short or longer local Public notes. Hence, the presenter was able to demonstrate a few tools of WMS, and possible “hiccups”, showing how easy it is to navigate the system.
In the next segment of the presentation, Wendy pointed out that difficulties might arise when Latin American books do not have a record on WorldCat. As her statistics showed, 25% of the works received on approval plans from Latin America are not found in WorldCat at the time of receipt. The lack of such records hinders the generation and payment of approval invoices; and the creation of a purchase order. Thus, in order to be added to a purchase order, each title needs to exist in WorldCat. There is no such thing as a temporary or masked record since WMS is Live! So, the presenter provided an example of how to go about making an item/book discoverable in case its record is not available.
The presenter highlighted some results based on UNM’s catalogers’ experience since WMS was implemented – about a year ago. Among these results, the presenter stated that her team has created over eleven hundred records for Latin America monographs that were not otherwise ‘discoverable’ yet. She also mentioned that, with WMS, the UNM Latin American Technical Services team can make better original contributions to WorldCat in the ordering process, from the creation of more substantial K level records to the subsequent upgrade to full level by their own catalogers after the backlog has aged 2-3 months. Wendy also mentioned that, in the past year, over 1,100 Latin American works have been made discoverable to the broader community via UNM’s use of WMS for acquisitions.
The presenter also proposed some takeaways from the application of WMS. On one hand, this system might be good for business since it creates efficient workflows for acquisition of mainstream materials; it streamlines cataloging and item creation processes; it updates catalogs automatically to latest bibliographic enhancements; and it forces discoverability for less common library materials. On the other hand, the use of WMS might not be so good for the catalogers’ profession since its interface is all point-and-click with dropdowns; there is more work for acquisition of less mainstream materials; non-catalogers can alter records or delete holdings; and it populates WorldCat with a certain number of junk records, leaving the professional cataloging to “someone else”.
Wendy closed her presentation on the UNM’s migration to WMS by suggesting further reading of the following articles:
1) Sever Bordeianu and Laura Kohl, “The Voyage Home: New Mexico Libraries Migrate to WMS, OCLC’s Cloud-Based ILS”, to be published in Technical Services Quarterly (v. 32, no. 3).
2) Claire-Lise Benaud and Sever Bordeianu, “OCLC’s WorldShare Management Services: A Brave New World for Catalogers”, Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2014.1003668 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2014.1003668
Timothy Thompson, Princeton University
Descrever é preciso: Adding Item-level Metadata to the Leila Míccolis
Brazilian Alternative Press Collection at the University of Miami Libraries
Timothy’s biography was introduced by the moderator.
Timothy started by disclaiming that the presentation was initially designed to be a “Roda Viva” presentation.
Firstly, the presenter showed an outline of his project about the metadata. The outline was divided into 5 parts: Background; Timeline; Approach; Metadata enhancement and Data Transformation and Analysis.
Thus, Timothy started with the project background by introducing Leila Miccolis, a Brazilian poet and activist whose career in the 70s and 80s was quite productive. The poet was involved in the Zine scene in underground networks during the dictatorship. The collection spreads mostly from the 60s to the early 90s, but there are some recent materials too. It also comprises a Brazilian Alternative Press Collection Publication sample, where works such as ‘Lampião da Esquina’ and ‘Opinião’ can be found.
The presenter read the statement of the mission of the Collection and its description.
Then, the timeline for the project was briefly presented. In 2006, the acquisition, processing and inventory of individual publications phases took place under the guidance of the University of Miami Library. Timothy presented a sample of a pdf, which gave a bit of information about the collection, but did not really make the publication accessible to users. In 2010, the University of Miami and other institutions around the Caribbean were involved in a project called the Collaborative Archive from the African Diaspora. In 2013, the LM collection metadata enhancement was funded by a grant using the Collaborative Archive from the African Diaspora funds and the metadata enhancement focused on the representation of Afro Brazilian identity within LM’s collection.
When explaining the approach to the project, the presenter highlighted the reigning paradigm in archival conventions: more process, less product. This paradigm applies to archivists, who seek to make their collections quickly available for people to have some kind of access to researches that already exist, do not spend a lot of time providing a higher level description of each folder, each piece, etc. The focus is to put the collection out there so people have immediate access to it; and, when they have time, they go back to the files and add to the metadata. Based on insights provided by this paradigm, Timothy described his own experience in working with metadata with minimal resources in a sustainable way. The presenter affirmed that this project may serve as a foundation for a model of metadata handling with limited funding. Thus, the introduction of the concept of Archival Context and Thematic Focus – metadata librarians to complement archival research – was concluded.
In the following segment of the presentation, Timothy provided the Metadata Enhancement Template he utilized in his project. The template had a streamlined metadata format, 54 elements for things like title, creator, contributor, description, publisher, dates – the bare bones, core elements that are necessary for discoverability. They used the pdf inventory as a basis, and split that up into individual records in this template. The template was given to a student to fill in by hand. This work was done 10 hours per week and the student recruited to perform this task was Brazilian and took classes with Professor Butterman for her major in Gender.
The presenter also described the Metadata Enhancement contents. The collection is very large, containing about 120 boxes, focused on thematic approach to African Brazilian identity. They looked for individual poems or articles or special issues that had some relation to or some representation of African Brazilian identity. This was not necessarily systematic, it was skimming the public issues and looking for things, but whenever the student found something relevant, she provided in-depth descriptions for the issues or titles. She would include all the contributors to that issue as well as the contents which were related to their thematic focus (geographic information, etc.) with core metadata that was not available in the inventory. She would also add the role of the contributor to the entry Timothy then showed an example of contributors for a publication.
Timothy presented a breakdown of the Data Transformation and Analysis by showing ‘finding aids’ container list to provide a sample of the entries, with controlled vocabulary provided by the student. The presenter demonstrated how the Archive manager software works and explained that the student created her own controlled vocabulary, what was helpful because the nature of these publications. This is of extreme importance, since there may not have been adequate headings in the Library of Congress subject list, for example. Timothy also pointed out the importance of social network analysis and the relationships in the data. For the presenter, the social networks are fascinating and contribute to the advancement of several forms of resistance, mentioning the Network Graphs in Gephi. The presenter referred to an article that is of interest for everyone who would like to have more technical information about this network graphs: Modeling Afro-Latin American Artistic Representations in Topic Maps: Cuba’s Prominence in Latin American Discourse Digital Humanities Quarterly 7.1 (2013).
The presenter closed his presentation by drawing some conclusions regarding the project outcomes, limitations and a quick demo for the Network Analysis Gephi. As for the outcomes of the project, Timothy highlighted the opportunity to provide enhanced access to individual publications; the rich learning experience the project is (blog post); the opportunity to collaborate with faculty (Professor Butterman); the cultivation of donor relationship (Facebook page shared the project achievements with with Leila Miccolis); the has been a lot of follow up work since her original acquisition; and the opportunity to explore and analyze new dataset. The presenter also pointed out some of the limitations of the project such as the use XForms rather than oXygen; the point that EAD profile (Archon) cannot accommodate enhanced item-level data and the fact that controlled vocabularies have not been reconciled.
As for the quick demonstration of Network Analysis Gephi, Timothy concluded that the software has a powerful analytical tool that connects the information and links it by affinity as is established by its settings. During that demonstration, Ruby Gutierrez from HAPI asked if the software shows where the notes contributors are located. Timothy clarified and showed how the graph works for the African Brazilian Identity and Leila Miccolis project. São Paulo, for instance, is highlighted as having its own network; some authors are identified as LM collaborators. It is a data laboratory that allows you to look at the numbers. There are some different view possibilities, layouts and options to save as PDF, etc. The presenter stated that, by utilizing this tool, one can get a higher level enhancement of metadata that has many different potential outcomes and uses.
● Jessie Christensen from BYU asked Wendy to elaborate on the relationship between acquisition and cataloging. Wendy affirmed she couldn’t give any solid conclusions since the boundaries between cataloging and acquisitions are fuzzier than ever. They have a lot of shelf-ready stuff that comes in already and that has enhanced the disconnect there. The people in acquisitions that are ordering have had to be trained to recognize what is acceptable record and what is not an acceptable record, and they don’t know how well that is really going. She affirmed that they get stuff in cataloging that needs attention. And, through some exemplification, Wendy said that everyone is trying to find out their roles.
● Bark Burton from Notre Dame asked Wendy about the K Level record creation. Wendy said that she starts from scratch, puts it in the back log, lets it age for about 2 months and then goes back to it to perform the enhancement. Probably a quarter of the books she created in the K Level record book, she had to come back and enhance them, either completely or to finish off what somebody else started on top of what she had done.
● Erma (…) from MLA asked Daniel about the timing of the project he presented. Daniel described the timeline and Ruby added to it. Daniel elaborated on the language (Portuguese, Spanish) records being searchable at some point.
● Ruby Gutierrez from HAPI asked Daniel if the English version will pull up the records for the Portuguese language. Daniel answered that they will.
● Timothy asked Daniel about working with translation companies and ongoing translations. Daniel said that, in the past, translation companies were involved in the HAPI online project; but, now, they prefer to recruit in-house by actively adding native Portuguese and native Spanish speakers to the staff.
● Timothy asked Daniel about making the thesaurus and dataset open to download in order to provide collaboration. Daniel said that, in the future, it is a desirable move. Ruby elaborated on the answer, using the example of the old website being open, but not sustainable. She said it is possible to do dumps and that Orchid would be willing to develop it. The databases is MYSEQUEL.
● Timothy asked Wendy who the vendors she works with are and if they are approvals and if the vendors provide cataloguing information for her records. Wendy listed the vendors and what sort of info they provide to aid her creation of records.
● Timothy asked Wendy if it becomes the master record. Wendy responded that it does and that people should be upgrading the record she creates.
● Diana Restrepo from a library in Colombia talked about the experience in cataloging in Colombia and how they are tackling buying and cataloging books from all over Latin America. Ruby asked where they are getting their terms from. Diana talked about the process (multi-meetings, policy decision, develop own terms).
● Daniel asked Wendy: What kind of training is provided by LCLC? Wendy says that they are very supportive and provided great training. The mechanics of the system was different from a 30-year usage of database and both acquisition people and circulation people received quite a lot of training.
● Brenda Salem from the University of Pittsburgh asked Daniel: What did you do about the additional descriptors in HAPI, as they need a lot of indexing in English. He said that they maintained their policy of keeping them in English. Even though the Portuguese and Spanish headings are for the record view, the English descriptor key words are still appearing. They just maintained that consistency.
Moderator: Teresa Chapa – University of North Carolina
Rapporteur: Alexia Shellard – Susanne Bach Books from Brazil and Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Gabriel Mordoch is a Brazilian PhD student at Ohio State University. It was his first time in SALALM and he presented a paper entitled Os Diálogos das Grandezas do Brasil  de Ambrósio Fernandes Brandão e os cristãos-novos no Brasil colonial. The work discusses three main questions: who was Ambrósio Fernandes, why has his text remained important and what was distinct about this narrative, compared to other colonial writings. Ambrósio Fernandes Brandão was a New-Christian and in his “Dialogues” – as opposed to most of other contemporary texts – there is not a clear allusion to traditional Christian values. He structures the narration as a dialogue between Brandoni and Alviano, in which the former defends the greatness of the colony while the latter offers more criticism. The text presents rich descriptions about landscape, natural diversity, weather, etc. Mordoch emphasizes the importance of Jewish culture for the development of American colonies and works on two hypotheses: either Brandão adopted the strategy of refuting and avoiding classical Catholic allusions in his “Dialogues” to reinforce his Jewish identity or he was performing an embryonic kind of secular speech reflecting the perceptions of someone who, removed from ebrew origins for generations, hadn’t been integrated into Catholicism as a religion.
Ricarda Musser has a PhD in Library Science and History and works at the Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut, in Berlin. Currently, she is involved with three projects related to Portugal, Brazil and Latin-America, one of which was presented in Panel 23, entitled “Immigration Guides as Source Material for Immigration History: The Example of Brazil”. Musser showed numbers and statistics about Germans who left Europe for America throughout the 19th and the first decades of the 20th century. Through the analysis of “immigration guides”, the purpose of the project is to examine quality information such as: conditions of life in the destination, perspectives in the German colonies, as well as details about the weather in Brazil, Brazilian laws related to immigration, etc.
Daniel Schoorl is an Associate Editor at the UCLA Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI) who presented the paper: “Arab Ethnicity in Brazil: An Overview of Recent Literature and Research”. The paper deals with recent literature – published after 2005 – which focuses on or includes the studies of ethnic identity in Middle Eastern-Brazilian communities. Immigration from the Middle East to Brazil has been widely studied as has the successful integration of these communities into Brazilian society. Researching mainly 19th century docs, Schoorl presented two important conclusions: most Arab immigrants went to urban locations, working in different kinds of business and, secondly, most of the Arab population was perceived by Brazilian people as Turkish in times of the declining – but still powerful – Ottoman Empire.
The panel was really very good, evoking interesting questions and problems. Ruby Gutierrez (Associate Editor at the UCLA Hispanic American Periodicals Index) questioned Musser about the position of a socialist regime in regards to slavery, which according to Musser, they intended to abolish. Gabrielle Winkler (Special Collections Assistant at Princeton University Library) then raised the question of nature and indigenous populations on the immigration guides. Although some Germans might have been impressed by the wild nature of Brazil in times of cultural Romanticism, the immigration guides faced both nature and indigenous people as elements to be fought and defeated.
Peter Johnson (from Princeton) wanted to know about immigrant civil organizations, if they existed or not, if they helped or not, and if they stimulated immigration or not, a question which both Musser and Schoorl were able to address: there were migrants networks, and those did indeed help to increase the immigration flows. Winkler asked about the religious pattern in German immigration, while Gutierrez asked about the destinations in Brazil for Arab people. According to Schoorl, the Arab immigrants were spread all over the country, but there were two important poles: the Amazon and the area where Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay have the triple frontier. Lastly, Mordoch was asked about the recent versions of “Dialogues”, which were last published in English and also if the New-Christians had ever returned to their original faith – this question, he said, is still to be researched.
Moderator: Gayle A. Williams, Florida International University
Rapporteur: Jade Kara Mishler, Tulane University
T-Kay Sangwand, University of Texas at Austin
A procura da batida perfeita: The Art of (Collecting) Brazilian Hip Hop
Suzanne M. Schadl & Viviane Ferreira de Faria, University of New Mexico
Borderlands Reinvented and Revisited: Third Space Intersections of Portuguese Language Literature in Print and Image
Sócrates Silva, University of California, Santa Barbara
Samba, choro, baião: Documenting Early Brazilian Sound Recordings at the UCSB Library
Donald M. Vorp, Princeton Theological Seminary Library
Studying Brazilian Christianity in Princeton
T-Kay Sangwand presented on collecting Brazilian hip hop at the University of Texas. She spoke about the historical trajectory of hip hop and identified trends and gaps in the scholarly conversation. T-Kay explained different ways in which she has obtained Brazilian hip hop materials for the library. She has had success working with vendors. LC Rio had been particularly amenable to acquiring a subscription to “Rap Nacional,” a key Brazilian hip hop journal. Through acquisitions trips T-Kay was able to attend hip hop shows, buy directly from artists and access the underground hip hop scene. T-Kay has worked directly with graduate students and faculty to identify materials of interest. Lastly, T-Kay recognized potential challenges that collecting hip hop presents. She spoke about audiovisual material being published on the internet through blogs, websites, and youtube, as well as important hip hop groups that function primarily on Facebook. She asked, “How can the library capture these types of material and provide access to them?”
Suzanne M. Schadl and Viviane Ferreira de Faria presented on two art exhibitions they curated: “AfroBrasil: Art and Identities” in August 2015 and “Borderlands Reinvented and Revisited: Portuguese Language and Literature in Print and Image” in fall 2015. Viviane explained that they designed the exhibitions with the following users in mind: the academic community, library users, the local community and the international community. Both exhibits were comprised of library collections, including special collections, canonical texts, cordeis, cartoneras, graphic novels, and films. They creatively used the space. Local musicians were invited to the opening reception of the “Borderlands” exhibit. The “AfroBrasil” exhibit included Candomblé altars.
Sócrates Silva presented on two current initiatives at the UCSB Library to document music production. The first, Discography of American Historical Recordings (DAHR), is a database that documents the output of American record companies during the 78rpm era. DAHR includes more than 100,000 master recordings (matrixes). There are 467 Brazilian Victor recordings in the database that were added from secondary sources. In 2012 the USCB Library received a $239,600 grant in order to Catalog 18,000 78s from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, France, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Spain from the 1900s-1960s (the bulk of them are from 1900s-1940s).
Donald M. Vorp presented on the Princeton Theological Seminary Library and their collections. The Seminary Library houses more than a million items and is considered one of the premier theological research centers. In the 1970′s Latin American and Iberian materials started being collected at the Seminary Library. There are now more than 25,000 volumes in Spanish and Portuguese and 1,300 current and historical periodicals from Latin American and the Iberian Peninsula. Donald explained that the Seminary Library has numerous collections of interest for the study of Brazilian Christianity/Christianities. Of Special note are the microfilm collections, such as the Iglesia en Brasil collection. The library also has relevant journals, such as “Estudos Biblicos,” “Revista de Interpretação Biblica Latino-Americana,” and “Estudos de Religião.” Some Brazilian theologians are active participants in the Global Network for Public Theology that was founded at the Center of Theological Inquiry in Princeton in 2007. The Global Network is associated with the “International Journal of Public Theology,” which devoted a special issue in 2012 to “Public Theology in Brazil”.
Jade Mishler asked Suzanne M. Schadl and Viviane Ferreira de Faria if putting together scholarly and popular resources and working with the public at large was an idea born in the library or if it was directly related to a larger university mission. Viviane said that these ideas were generated out of the library. They wanted to make the special collections more accessible, visible and to integrate them. Suzanne said it came out of trying to challenge a healthy collection budget with materials that are primary in scope, and could be utilized by students, community members, graduate students and faculty members. She said that there is an ongoing administrative-level and faculty level conversation at UNM about community engagement.
Carlos Navarro (University of New Mexico) asked if there is hip hop coming out of favelas in Rio. T-Kay said that Baile Funk came out of Rio and is similar to hip hop in some ways. She contrasted the drug trafficking and consumerist lyrics in Baile Funk with more politically conscious hip hop lyrics. T-Kay said that there is some politically conscious hip hop coming out of Rio. There are community centers that are trying to attract members with hip hop.
T-Kay asked Donald if there are music ethnologists or theologians looking at the evangelist messages in Brazilian gospel rap. Donald said he wasn’t aware of any theologians working on that.
Gayle Williams asked T-Kay if she’s seen Cordel Literature that is about hip hop or hip hop that mentions Cordel literature. T-Kay said she’s not that familiar with Cordel literature and isn’t sure. Viviane said that Cordel literature tends to react to everything and she wouldn’t be surprised. Suzanne said that some Samba artists were featured in the Cordel literature in their exhibit.
Viviane asked Donald how he has perceived the ascendance of Evangelism in Brazil with both the people and within congress. She asked if Donald could foresee the election of an Evangelic president within the next two elections. Donald said there are internal conflicts among the Brazilian evangelicals and it’s been interesting to see how one group ascends over the other. He said there are a growing number of evangelicals trying to engage with social realities in Brazilian culture, which leads them to political engagement.
Date: Wednesday June 17, 2015, 10:30 am to 12:00 pm
Moderator: Rafael E. Tarragó, University of Minnesota
Rapporteur: Christine Hernández, Tulane University
Sarah Buck-Kachaluba, University of California, San Diego and Lynn Shirey, Harvard University
The Genesis and Evolution of the Digital Primary Resources Subcommittee
Luis A. González, Indiana University
Archivo Mesoamericano: An International Collaborative Video Digitization Project
Antonio Sotomayor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Digitizing the Conde de Montemar Letters (1761-1799): A Beginner’s Impressions on Multi-Departmental Collaborations and Digital Humanities
The moderator, Dr. Rafael E. Tarragó, begins the session by introducing the panel of presenters and reminding the audience of the rules for the session.
The panel began with the presentation by Antonio Sotomayor about the digitization of the Conde de Montemar letters held by the University of Illinois. Antonio gives a brief background to the project now entering its third year. The Conde de Montemar collection is a large holding comprised of family correspondence dating to between 1761 and 1799 of a noble family of the Peruvian viceroyalty.
The theme of Antonio’s presentation is that of the importance of inter-departmental collaboration in a library digitization project. He begins with the groundwork phase of the project where discussions with several groups of experts were vital to the development of the proposed content and technical execution of the project. These experts included faculty members with expertise in the subject areas that would directly benefit from digital access to the Conde de Montemar letters. Discussions with digital librarians and technical support staff helped to make clear the multitude of models for digital humanities projects and the kinds of questions that need to be asked and answered in order to choose and develop a database model appropriate to the primary sources to be digitized. In the end, Antonio notes that two of the most important questions to be addressed are which disciplines will derive the most benefit from this project and what will investigators need for their research.
Along with these discussions, Antonio notes that he had to do a fair amount of research on the materials themselves and on the literature concerning digital humanities projects, in general. He also discussed the process of evaluating various models taken from other digital humanities projects for use with the Conde de Montmar letters. The goal for the University of Illinois project was always to create a resource that would be something more than just published digital images of letters.
Additionally, collaborations with appropriate departments on campus and off-campus were essential to the project. Care had to be taken not to tread on inter-departmental politics or feelings of territoriality. Antonio notes also that with some aspects of the project there was a steep learning curve and storage space and maintenance for the database needed to be procured and negotiated.
Antonio then goes on to describe the general workflow for the project. The letters are digitized, then metadata records are created, and finally a transcription will be made of each letter. Sotomayor notes that each step entails a series of decisions to be made and funding to be secured. Staff support at each step is critical as well. The digital platform chosen for the project is eXtensible Text Framework (XTF).
Antonio concludes the presentation with a brief overview of the current work on the project. This stage includes interacting closely with the IT department and securing funding to create transcriptions of the letters. Project staff will work with faculty members to assess the digital products created and to help the project team to further develop the digital materials into a teaching tool.
The next presentation was given by Luis A. González concerning the Archivo Mesoamericano project. Luis begins with thanks to the panel organizers for the invitation to present. He introduces the Archivo Mesoamericano as a resource. It is an archive of video materials that is freely accessible online and fully searchable using Spanish keywords. The project is international in two senses: the first, being that two of the partner institutions are located outside of the United States; and two, that the records in the Archivo Mesoamericano are in both Spanish and English and are searchable using Spanish search terms. The institutions involved in the creation of the Archivo Mesoamericano include the University of Indiana and two other partners which are the Institute for the Historia de Nicaragua and Central America (IHNCA) and the Museum of the Word and the Image (MUPI).
Luis continues with a discussion of the history of the project. It began in 2005 when two separate databases CAMVA and CLAMA were merged to form the Archivo Mesoamericano. The consortium of partners included the University of Indiana (CLACS and DLP), CIESAS, IHNCA, and MUPI. Jeffrey Gould was an early founder of the Archivo Mesoamericano as he created the original consortium from a network of protest projects in California. The project was funded with a TICFIA grant.
The goals of the Archivo Mesoamericano project are the following: 1) preservation of a wide range of video content and video sources; 2) dissemination and access to video resources made freely available for educational purposes. The archive’s materials are indexed, annotated, and are discoverable via WorldCat; and 3) to be technologically innovative. An annotation tool was developed at the University of Indiana for use on the video materials in the archive. Although the tool is proprietary, training workshops were provided for all partner institutions. The content of the archive would be of interest to those who study indigenous languages, conditions and conflicts in rural communities, and rural guerrilla conflicts.
Luis then gave a demonstration of how to navigate to the Archivo Mesoamericano webpage, how to enter the database via the browser interface, how to search for video materials, and what kinds of video material a user can expect to find.
Luis concludes with a brief summary of the highlights of the Archivo Mesoamerica which are the following: the Archivo is a searchable digital archive, it is an open access archive, it provides a unique teaching and research resource, titles are currently being catalogued, the Archivo will provide long-term preservation of its content as the University of Indiana will sustain the database, and there is institutional cooperation involved in the development and long-term sustainability of the current database
The final presentation was that of Drs. Sarah Buck Kachaluba and Lynn Shirey concerning the foundations for establishing the Digital Primary Sources Subcommittee within SALALM. Lynn Shirey begins with a brief background discussion. She explains that numerous researchers based at small institutions were having difficulty finding and gaining access to primary resources necessary to their studies. Their needs prompted the start of a project to create a finding aid for primary sources. An early version was drawn up by combining multiple lists, creating a bibliography, and adding webpage links. A sub-committee of two people who would also serve as an editorial board was established and they made an early effort to secure funding and which was subsequently provided initially from SALALM.
The moderator, Dr. Rafael Tarragó and current sub-committee chairman, interjected at this point to add that the sub-committee now numbers at more than 25 people and it held its first official meeting at the current annual conference of SALALM. He gave a brief summary of the results of the first sub-committee meeting and a demonstration of the webpage and current listing of primary resources.
Sarah, Lynn, and Rafael conclude the presentation with a series of needs for how the sub-committee and the current primary source list could be moved forward. These efforts include: help with cataloging and organizing the list; securing more funding; and providing more depth to the current listing of primary sources beyond the immediate needs expressed initially be a select number of researchers. A final comment was interjected by panelist Luis A. González that the current listing of primary sources comes only from members of SALALM and asks whether there would be an opportunity to open it up to materials held by institutions outside of SALALM.
The Question and Answer period began with a comment from Dr. Sarah Aponte of the Dominican Studies Institute directed to panelist Antonio Sotomayor. She describes a “Spanish paleography tool” that is used at the Institute and she has found it very helpful for teaching people how to read paleography. She suggests that it may be helpful to Antonio with his Conde de Montemar Letters digitization project. Panelist Luis A. González of the University of Indiana and moderator Rafael Tarragó of the University of Minnesota affirm the tool’s usefulness.
Diana Restrepo Torres of the Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango poses a question to Luis A. González of the University of Indiana: When you say “searchable” [in reference to the Archivo Mesoamericano], what do mean? Is it searchable only by the title or for content within the films as well?
Luis A. González responds that both title and content are searchable and shows several examples searching on keywords, dates, and places. He explains that the all of the scenes in each film are annotated and catalogued using proprietary software developed at the University of Indiana. The software was originally used to analyze and index folk music videos and has since been re-tooled for use with the ethnographic videos in the Archivo Mesoamericano. One of the reasons for developing this software was to provide multi-lingual access to the materials.
Maria Torres of the Universidad de Puerto Rico poses a question to Luis A. González of the University of Indiana about the language used to create the descriptive texts and subject headings in the videos contained in the Archivo Mesoamericano.
Luis A. González responds that the vocabulary used for the Archivo Mesoamericano metadata was adapted from that used by UNESCO for describing cultural subjects.
Luis A. González of the University of Indiana poses a question to Antonio Sotomayor of the University of Illinois: Antonio, based on your descriptions of letters in bundles and their orientation, what are you thinking of doing [with respect to representing the original physical orientation of the texts on pages of letters].
Antonio responds with a demonstration of the vertical orientation of the texts in one letter, but the spatial orientation of the letter’s texts does not necessarily correspond with the train of thought conveyed in the reading of the letter. A graduate student familiar with the texts of colonial folios was brought in to help decode the structures of the letters. He points out that this is one example of why the Conde de Montemar Letters project must be a collaborative one.
Lynn Shirey of the Library of Congress adds that the project could endeavor to show how the writing in the letters can be re-orientated.
Antonio responds that this could be tricky to do. It shows how essential it is to know well the nature (both physical and content wise) of the materials being digitized in order to best structure the resulting database. He notes that it takes more time to plan a database structure than to actually build it.
Rafael E. Tarragó of the University of Minnesota comments that paper was expensive and very important during the Colonial period, so people would economize when it came to filling the space on pages of paper.
Antonio Sotomayor of the University of Illinois comments that the goal of the project is to capture the whole essence of each letter in reference to watermarks on the papers because this may be of interest to researchers.
Christine Hernández of Tulane University adds that there are visualization tools that can be used in a database of images to convey orientation and position of database items in a series.
Antonio Sotomayor of the University of Illinois replies that the project begins with adding informative essays about the viceroy’s family to explain provenience and structure of the letters and to explain the cultural context of the entirety of the collection.
Rafael E. Tarragó of the University of Minnesota ends the session at 11:45 am.
Thomas K. Edlund, Brigham Young University
The Why’s and Why Not’s of Family History Research: A Professional Retrospective
Rapporteur: David Block, University of Texas
Edlund is currently Eastern European Bibliographer, among other responsibilities, at the Harold B. Lee Library. His academic training includes being a student of the eminent Mesoamericanist, Charles Dibble, but he gave up Aztec studies for “something less violent.’ Genealogy is, as any librarian knows, an extremely popular pursuit. The searches of family history Internet sites are second in number only to those dedicated to pornography.
Surveys asking why people are interested in genealogy most often cite:
1. to learn about who I am; 2. to know my ancestors as people; 3. for posterity.
The traditional methodology is completion of pedigrees, which is in most cases quite a complex mix of culture and history. Uses examples from pre-hispanic Mexican documents (Codex Xolotl) to show how these documents reflect multiple lineages and often include a high degree of inaccuracy and legend. Another limitation of pedigrees is the insistence on tracing only paternal relations and a preference for tracing linearity.
Learning is an activity shared by organisms as simple as jellyfish and as complex as humans. It encompasses forms as variable as simple luck, experience, and reason to communicating a solution across an entire population, e.g. research and publication.
Methods of genealogical research—extrapolation, traditional documentary investigation, and genetic, all of which would optimally include both parenthood and filiations (brothers and sisters).
Molecular testing, the kind currently being popularized by commercial firms (STR), is actually better at demonstrating lack of relation than establishing a relation itself. Deep ancestry testing, UEP, is extremely accurate but also extremely complex and expensive.
In conclusion, Edlund offered that if genealogists seek valid results, they can obtain knowledge of something more than ourselves. The why of genealogy is to transcend the limitations of the present.
Christine Hernandez, Tulane University, offered an explanation for why the people depicted in Xolotl would want to establish their ancestors back into a great time; elite people could demonstrate their connection to some divine ancestry that would solidify their own power. Edlund answered that he understood this desire and added that a number of ancient people, many of them featured in the Bible, used genealogy in this way. But stressed that his presentation was concerned the how, rather than the why of the genealogy.
David Block, University of Texas and rapporteur for the session, thanked Edlund for his challenging presentation, especially so for the recorder, and offered a summary of it along the lines of “an acceptable genealogy is one that is ‘good enough’ to satisfy the researcher.”
Moderator: Karina Morales (Family Search)
Rapporteur: Daniel Schoorl (HAPI)
Karina E. Morales, FamilySearch
General Strategy for Acquiring and Negotiating Historical Records in Latin American Acquisition
Adele Marcum, FamilySearch
Preparing Records for Publication Online
Debbie Gurtler, FamilySearch
Research Methodology: A Librarian’s Perspective
Karina Morales (Family Search, Content Strategist for Latin America)
Karina began by explaining how and why Family Search identifies and prioritizes records, as well as the process they follow in analyzing and forecasting demand for records. Country acquisition priorities have changed over time, with evidence of such from greater camera placement in Brazil and an emphasis on multiple types of records, including but not limited to Catholic parish registers, census records, immigration records, civil registration, burial records, and baptism records. She showed many examples of records of Latin American historical figures, including Frida Kahlo, Carlos Slim, Pedro Infante, Maria Felix, Juan Peron, and Jorge Negrete. She also showed a family tree she had completed using Family Search tracing her own ancestry from San Luis Potosi, Mexico.
Preparing Records for Publication Online –
Adele Marcum (Family Search, Records Specialist for Central America and Caribbean)
Adele described her work as a records specialist and she focuses on records negotiation, digital capture, and acquisition. She also explained how Family Search creates production plans to determine the treatment of records, formatting options, and integrity of records. Adele also covered the process that Family Search has developed to create specifications for indexing and train volunteer indexer to identify pertinent information. One of the final aspects of her work is to complete a pre-publication check of metadata and standardize historical records collections before they are published online.
Research Methodology: A Librarian’s Perspective –
Debbie Gurtler (Family Search, Family History Research Specialist)
Debbie began by describing the research process step by step, from identifying what is known, to setting research goals, to selecting records to search, and obtaining these records and using the information. She recommended family sources as a starting point (family interviews, photos, records, etc.). She also gave demos and highlighted the features and tools available from Family Search, including family tree diagrams, family group records, and fan charts (with photos as a new feature on Family Search). The genealogical research process was explained in the Latin American context with an emphasis on church records and civil registration records beginning in late 19th century Latin America. Debbie described types of information in birth/baptism records, marriage records, and death/burial records. She also mentioned of how Family Search and OCLC have agreed to a partnership. The main points of searching strategies that Debbie emphasized was that less is more when using Family Search and that the use of the filter options are highly recommended.
Robert Behra (University of Utah) asked about why Family Search had no images from Uruguay published online. Adele Marcum (Family Search) answered that Family Search did not have the rights to publish the images they have from Uruguay online. Myra Appel (UC Davis) asked about institutions with limited internet access whose records have been ingested by Family Search and how they can access and use the digital versions of their records. Debbie Gurtler (Family Search) answered that Family Search provides digital copies to all institutions where they digitize records from.
Moderator: Donna Canevari de Paredes, University of Saskatchewan
Rapporteur: Jill E. Baron, Dartmouth College
John B. Wright, Brigham Young University
Discovering Self through Ancestors’ Diaries
Peter Altekrüger, Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut PK, Berlin
De Amor, Crimen y Cotidianidad. Las Revistas Teatrales y Colecciones de Novelas Cortas Argentinas del Instituto Ibero-Americano
Ricarda Musser, Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut PK, Berlin
Cultural Magazines of Latin America. An Acquisition and Digitalization Project of the Ibero-American Institute / Berlin
Silvana Jacqueline Aquino Remigio, Biblioteca Españade la Artes del Centro Cultural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru
Las Fotografías como Fuente de Información Genealógica: Breve Mirada al Caso del Archivo Courret
John Wright described growing up hearing family stories about his great-great-grandfather Oliverson. In 1992, he transcribed James Oliverson’s diaries, consisting of 2 volumes: 1884-1886, 1886-1888, plus a smaller book on business dealings. In the process of doing this transcription, he also did genealogical research. He found references to Oliverson in the Brigham Young guide to Mormon diaries and among volumes in the Utah Historical Society, where he found a total of 12 diaries ranging from 1882-1893. These diaries documented business transactions, such as selling butter, and lumber dealings. John and his father transcribed the diaries and did research on the period, trying to complete the historical context of the diaries. In sum, he found that although the diaries were written for personal use, they offer a poignant description of life at the time and offer raw material for reconstruction of the past.
Paloma Celis-Carbajal proxied for Silvana Jacqueline Aquino Remigio, as Silvana was not able to attend SALALM. Silvana’s presentation described the photographic archives of Courret, a French photographer who lived in Lima, Peru in the 19th century. Courret was one of the first photographers in Peru. He arrived in Lima in 1860, where he set up a studio and photographed Limeño society. Courret won many prizes for his work, and the archive includes around 70 years worth of material. Peru received many immigrants from 1850-1950, and the photographs register this growth and diversification of the population. The Biblioteca España de las Artes del Centro Cultural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Perú, with the cooperation of the French government, is now digitizing the collection, and efforts will be made to identify the subjects of the photographs. This effort will involve user cooperation/input, and eventually the resource will be invaluable for investigating social, cultural and family history and immigration patterns in Peru.
Peter Altekrüger presented on a long-term project at the Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut to collect and digitize Argentine popular literature from the early 20th century, including theater magazines and short novels, or revistas teatrales and novelas cortas. This project represents 10 years worth of collecting these materials, and benefited from investment from the German government of $300,000, which paid for 10 people, digital infrastructure, the catalog and travel. The revistas teatrales and novelas cortas represent a popular genre, started in 1917. Buenos Aires was a center for theater, and these materials were originally sold in the street, in kiosks, for theater-goers. Writers for the magazines were both known and unknown. The magazines include portraits of actors, caricatures, comedies, pieces about football, advertisements, and depict the increase of working women, the marriage crisis, tango, quotidian life, eroticism. In sum, these materials reflect the growth of Buenos Aires in the 1920s, due to considerable immigration.
The collection at the IAI of revistas teatrales comprises 160 titles, or around 6000 issues, and is unique in its breadth and depth. In 2013, the majority of the collection was digitized and put online. Digitization is the only means of saving these materials as the magazines were printed on highly acidic paper. Every item is cataloged in the OPAC in addition to the digital presentation. 300,000 pages are digitized, which include maps, photographs. The IAI put on an exhibit about these materials, which will travel to the Biblioteca nacional de Argentina in 2015.
Ricarda Musser spoke about a new digitization project at the IAI involving Latin American cultural magazines. The term “cultural magazines” encompasses a wide spectrum, including the humanities, sciences, arts, etc., particularly during the period for this project, 1880-1930. What is more, the form of the articles in these magazines is diverse: stories, poems, interviews, reviews, and illustrations. Ultimately they hope to produce a digital library of around 80 Latin American cultural magazines.
For this project, the IAI benefited from funding from a German research foundation that awards grants to research libraries for developing collections and initiating new lines of research. They selected 80 titles from 6 countries, including Caras y caretas (Buenos Aires). With the funding, they were able to acquire collections and digitize them. However, they struggled with incomplete sets of magazines and sometimes poor condition of paper. To fill gaps in holdings, they have sought out the antiquarian book market in Peru and Argentina. For other items they may try to collaborate with libraries. Cataloging was performed with IAI money. It will take 36 months to finish the project. They started in June 2013 with “Nativa” (Argentina) 1924-1973, and all who are interested should contact Ricarda for a complete list of titles.
Moderator Donna Canevari de Paredes (University of Saskatchewan) asked John Wright what was the most surprising thing you found in the diaries? He answered that he didn’t know that his great-great-grandfather had lived in Montana for a time. John kept finding references to “Dylan,” and realized that he was talking about a town in Montana. The process of transcribing the diaries revealed a real person.
Irene Munster (University of Maryland) asked Peter if any of the titles that you are digitizing were intended for immigrants? Peter answered that among them include translations of Russian authors, but otherwise does not know. Ultimately he hopes that scholars will be able to answer this question. He is surprised already at the amount of interest in these materials; already 30 scholars from Argentina have come to use these materials, studying all manner of topics.
David Block (University of Texas) asked Peter if he started collecting these materials at the suggestion of your researchers, or of your own doing? Peter answered that this project was originally his own idea. When they started, they had about 20 titles, and it seemed doable, but with each trip, he found more and more titles and the project grew. While the bibliographic description seemed good, he later found that it is often wrong, and has been a significant challenge. Into the future, they may not continue to collect at the same scale.
Moderator: Álvaro Risso (Librería Linardi y Risso)
Rapporteur: Wendy Pedersen (Universidad de Nuevo México
Julio Marchena, Libros Peruanos S.A.
Nuevas Tendencias en la Industria Editorial Peruana
Fernando Genovart, Librería García Cambeiro
Argentinean Academic Publishing Industry, Monographs
Vera de Araujo-Shellard, Susan Bach Books from Brazil
Sandra Soares de Costa, Susan Bach Books from Brazil
Publishing Trends in Contemporary Brazil: Who is Minding the Book Store?
S. Lief Adleson, Books from Mexico
Pedro Figueroa, Books from Mexico
Among Books and Dealers: Constants and Changes in the Mexican Academic Publishing Industry
S. Lief Adleson, Books from Mexico
Preliminary Report of the Acquisitions Trends Survey Task Force
Julio Marchena discussed developments in Peruvian publishing. Peru was the featured country this year at the FILBO in Bogotá. He points out that several important contemporary Peruvian authors were first published outside of Peru, names such as Diego Trelles, Jerónimo Pimentel, Jeremías Gamboa, & Gabriela Weiner. “Marca Perú” is a current branding project, a collaborative marketing strategy and a sign of an expanding publishing industry. Noting a connection between malnutrition and illiteracy, efforts are under way to popularize reading in the barrios.
Fernando Genovart discussed Argentina’s 300% increase in publishing since the 1990s. Argentina is currently 4th in production. In 2013, the number for hard copy books was 23,316 and for e-books, 4,441 – many of which were editions of works now out-of-copyright. Buenos Aires Province produces 89% of Argentina’s output. Print runs are smaller and printing on demand is common, all of which is having a negative effect on bookstores. Fernando advises us that Argentina produces numerous journals that show no US holdings and are not available by Open Access.
Vera Araújo and Sandra Soares offered some numbers and then some analysis on the state of publishing in Brazil. In 2013 almost 84,000 titles of all types were published, largely translations. About 5,000 are titles of academic interest; it was noted that Harvard only took 2,500 of these. The greatest numbers of Brazilian publishers are in São Paulo, followed by Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Print runs are dwindling, which accounts for the appearance of so many “edições” of the same title. Publication of devotional material is surging and much of it is being sold to the State, for reasons unknown. Seasonally, the first books to come out each year are school books, with most works carrying the current year imprint appearing in May and later. For approval plans, this makes a case for allowing the previous year’s imprints. Regarding e-books, Vera says, “You don’t see them anywhere”. According to data compiled by the Câmara Brasileira do Livro, e-book publishing grew by 350% from 2011 to 2012, yet comprised less than 1% of billing.
In Mexico, Lief Adelson and Pedro Figueroa report that most academic publications are directly or indirectly susidized by government, and partnering is widely practiced. History: after the 1985 earthquake, decentralization of many institutions took hold, with public money moving out into the states. Now 40-50% of publishing happens outside the Distrito Federal. There is much more coming out from regional universities, their research institutes, and “institutos culturales estatales”. Private commercial publishers are in flux; production is declining at Plaza Y Valdez and Siglo Veintiuno. Even FCE (Fondo de Cultura Económica), by far the most widespread imprint in Latin America, dipped in 2013. Newer publishers such as Bonilla-Artigas, Cacciani, Ediciones Endora & Editorial Terracota are on the rise. As in other countries, the size of print runs is down (500 average for academic works) and print-on-demand is more common. Prices are rising. Although academic departments are under pressure to publish electronically, Mexico produces the lowest number of e-books in Latin America and there is no consensus on platforms. INEGI has stopped printing altogether and now offers their born-digital statistical materials exclusively online.
Paloma Celis-Carbajal briefly discussed the charge of SALALM’s Acquisitions Trends Survey Task Force.
Moderator: Wendy Pedersen, University of New Mexico
Rapporteur: Michael Scott, Georgetown University
Paulita Aguilar, University of New Mexico
Cultural Connections between A Zapotecan Village, Teotitlan del Valle, and New Mexico Pueblos: Imagined or Real?
Claire-Lise Bénaud, University of New Mexico
Ordinary Images: Appreciating Photographs of Children in a Pictorial Archive
Michael Hoopes w/Suzanne M. Schadl, University of New Mexico
All in the Family: Special Collections Digitally Born
Paulita Aguilar, University of New Mexico: “Cultural Connections Between a Zapotecan Village, Teotitlan del Valle, and New Mexico Puebloans: Imagined or Real?”
Aguilar, a Puebloan from Santo Domingo, New Mexico, discussed possible cultural connections between the Pueblo Indians and the Zapotecs of Teotitlan del Valle in Oaxaca State, Mexico. She began by describing how long it takes to walk between the two places, about 40 days each way. There were several trade routes between them, so there was a great amount of cultural contact.
Aguilar demonstrated some of these cultural similarities by comparing a sample of New Mexican rock art to an image from an Aztec codex. A trader appears in the Aztec image, and it is similar to the kokopelli (flute player) image in the New Mexican rock art. In Pueblo pictorial narratives, the kokopelli is depicted carrying things in his pack, especially seeds, which were indeed traded along the routes.
Next, Aguilar talked about specific trade items. Theobroma cacao began in central and southern Mexico, and gradually spread to both the present-day American southwest and Central America. Traces of cacao have been found in pots at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Patricia Crown at UNM studied these traces, and some may have been part of religious ceremonies. Therefore religious customs may have followed these same trade routes as well.
The range of the scarlet macaw spans from southeastern Mexico to the south into Ecuador and northwestern Brazil. Scarlet macaw feathers, although the species is not native to the southwestern United States is used in Hopi buffalo dances. Two Pueblo tribes are of the Macaw clan as well.
Turquoise was another trade item between present-day Mexico and New Mexico. Not only were there turquoise mines in Sonora State, Mexico, Arizona, and New Mexico, but there are also several linguistic similarities between the Nahuatl and Pueblo words for turquoise. The Zuni Pueblo has its own language which is related to Nahuatl.
Next, Aguilar discussed her observations in Mexico. Teotitlan del Valle is a village about 20 miles east of Oaxaca city. Aguilar visited Teotitlan and other neighboring villages for her research. At Mitla there is a large archaeological site, and many of its symbols are similar to those found in Pueblo architecture.
Elsie Clews Parsons was an anthropologist who researched Pueblo Indians in the early 20th century. Parsons was studied the Pueblo people, and even had “informants” among women. Parsons lived in Mitla for about a year, and she wrote that she observed many similarities to the American Southwest. Aguilar continued with the comparisons and striking resemblances in the architecture (churches, adobe homes, etc.) and the people of the two places.
While Aguilar was in Mexico, the Teotitlan del Valle museum had an exhibit on Día de los muertos, which is also celebrated among indigenous New Mexicans. The Pueblo’s Matachines dance bears a strong resemblance to Danza de las Plumas in Teotitlan del Valle. The Museum also had a display of an indigenous wedding, which is similar to those in the Pueblos.
In the future, Aguilar would like to see if there are clan-like systems among the Zapotec of Oaxaca similar to those of the Pueblos, and also wishes to deepen the comparisons to language, food preparation, child rearing, naming ceremonies, healing ceremonies, and so on. This may be difficult, because even among her own Macaw clan in Santo Domingo, she will likely face a great deal of resentment and unwillingness to cooperate with an anthropological study.
Claire-Lise Bénaud, University of New Mexico: “Ordinary Images: Appreciating Photographs of Children in a Pictorial Archive”
Bénaud discussed photographs of children in archive at the University of New Mexico special collections. The majority of the photographs are ordinary, but still reveal much. Most were taken by studio photographers in Mexico City, Durango, León, Veracruz and two photographic studios in Albuquerque and Chloride, New Mexico. One of Bénaud’s intents was to highlight the importance of collecting the ordinary and common, instead of the usual focus on unique materials. The photographs date from the late 19th century through World War One.
The photographs can tell us many things: what is image about? who was photographer? And how was it influenced by traditional culture? In a sense they can act as evidence of the time-period, as Susan Sontag wrote, and photographs of children “show us what we want to be.”
During the 19th century, going to the studio was a ritual of parenthood, especially for wealthier families. Bénaud “read” an example of a photograph, demonstrating its implicit societal values. In general, fathers are generally in a more prominent position; they do not hold their children, but protect them, or they are portrayed as educator (teacher). Bénaud continued with several more examples from the archive. In one photo, the father holds the child, and there is no mother in this picture (she may no longer be alive), so he portrays both roles at the same time.
There are many more photographs of children with their mothers than fathers. Smiling is rare, and the children appear to be obedient and stare at the camera; mothers’ poses tend to be loving, but with a stern expression. Bénaud presented several more examples of photographs of mothers with children, and interpreted them for the audience.
Next, Bénaud then turned to the backgrounds used in the photographs. When a background is present, they are often meant to convey opulence, as presented in another sample from the archive, although most have no background. Fathers in the photographs do not tend to express tenderness.
The next topic was babies. The archive contains many photographs of babies in christening. The large size of the gowns, often overpowering child his or herself signifies that the event has more significance than the child itself. Bénaud again returned to examples. Occasionally toys and other objects from the outside world also appeared in the photographs of children and babies, and these props always looked fresh and unused. In other photographs, sisters sometimes take on role of mothers, posing as if they are looking after their younger siblings.
Bénaud then explained the concept of the romantic child, which is derived from Rousseau’s idealization of children as inherently good and innocent. This notion transformed childhood in the modern age; in paintings before photography, children were originally seen as adults in the making, rather than innocent and pure, as is often the case now. Bénaud presented these ideas in an example of child that looks like a bride, and in another which is a brother and sister were presented as bride and groom.
Returning to the backdrops, the ones depicting outdoor scenes are always serene and idyllic. To match this backdrop, the children occasionally are presented as idealized innocent rural peasants. Often to match these bucolic backdrops and to show children’s connections with nature, both in New Mexico and Mexico, dogs are often present, especially in the case of boys. In the rarer urban backdrops, children as presented as refined and educated, such as posing with a violin.
In these highly idealized settings, parents project their feelings about the future. These very ordinary photographs gloss over the conflict and difficulties that many face in their lives, as much as now as then.
Michael Hoopes and Suzanne Schadl, University of New Mexico (presented by Wendy Pedersen): “All in the Family: Special Collections Digitally Born”
Wendy Pedersen of the University of New Mexico presented the work of UNM graduate student Michael Hoopes, who used the Archive-It web archiving service to capture and archive digitally-born resources. Hoopes captured images related to and produced by the print-making collective Asamblea de Artistas de Revolucionarios de Oaxaca (ASARO). Much of the work produced by ASARO was born digitally, so Hoopes used the tool Archive-it to capture the images as well as any attached metadata. UNM also added metadata to make the images even more searchable.
Pedersen provided a demonstration of Archive-It, and showed how they appeared in the New Mexico Digital Collections page. Archive-It allows partners who use it to easily harvest, catalog, and manage their born-digital collections. The collections themselves are hosted at the Internet Archive, yet they also form part of UNM’s digital collections.
Lastly, Pedersen demonstrated that many of these images are no longer on the Web, so services like Archive-It are important for long-term archiving.
Mark Grover, BYU: What is the significance of Chaco Canyon?
A (Paulita Aguilar): It is northeast of Albuquerque and important trading site. It may have had influence all the way into Mexico City and the Yucatan. Aguilar wants to look at all kinds of connections (linguistic, trade, etc.)
Brenda Salem, University of Pittsburgh: What is the criteria for archiving the sites?
A (Wendy Pedersen): Get in touch with Suzanne Schadl, who spearheaded the project.
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