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Thomas K. Edlund, Brigham Young University
The Why’s and Why Not’s of Family History Research: A Professional Retrospective
Rapporteur: David Block, University of Texas
Edlund is currently Eastern European Bibliographer, among other responsibilities, at the Harold B. Lee Library. His academic training includes being a student of the eminent Mesoamericanist, Charles Dibble, but he gave up Aztec studies for “something less violent.’ Genealogy is, as any librarian knows, an extremely popular pursuit. The searches of family history Internet sites are second in number only to those dedicated to pornography.
Surveys asking why people are interested in genealogy most often cite:
1. to learn about who I am; 2. to know my ancestors as people; 3. for posterity.
The traditional methodology is completion of pedigrees, which is in most cases quite a complex mix of culture and history. Uses examples from pre-hispanic Mexican documents (Codex Xolotl) to show how these documents reflect multiple lineages and often include a high degree of inaccuracy and legend. Another limitation of pedigrees is the insistence on tracing only paternal relations and a preference for tracing linearity.
Learning is an activity shared by organisms as simple as jellyfish and as complex as humans. It encompasses forms as variable as simple luck, experience, and reason to communicating a solution across an entire population, e.g. research and publication.
Methods of genealogical research—extrapolation, traditional documentary investigation, and genetic, all of which would optimally include both parenthood and filiations (brothers and sisters).
Molecular testing, the kind currently being popularized by commercial firms (STR), is actually better at demonstrating lack of relation than establishing a relation itself. Deep ancestry testing, UEP, is extremely accurate but also extremely complex and expensive.
In conclusion, Edlund offered that if genealogists seek valid results, they can obtain knowledge of something more than ourselves. The why of genealogy is to transcend the limitations of the present.
Christine Hernandez, Tulane University, offered an explanation for why the people depicted in Xolotl would want to establish their ancestors back into a great time; elite people could demonstrate their connection to some divine ancestry that would solidify their own power. Edlund answered that he understood this desire and added that a number of ancient people, many of them featured in the Bible, used genealogy in this way. But stressed that his presentation was concerned the how, rather than the why of the genealogy.
David Block, University of Texas and rapporteur for the session, thanked Edlund for his challenging presentation, especially so for the recorder, and offered a summary of it along the lines of “an acceptable genealogy is one that is ‘good enough’ to satisfy the researcher.”
Moderator: Karina Morales (Family Search)
Rapporteur: Daniel Schoorl (HAPI)
Karina E. Morales, FamilySearch
General Strategy for Acquiring and Negotiating Historical Records in Latin American Acquisition
Adele Marcum, FamilySearch
Preparing Records for Publication Online
Debbie Gurtler, FamilySearch
Research Methodology: A Librarian’s Perspective
Karina Morales (Family Search, Content Strategist for Latin America)
Karina began by explaining how and why Family Search identifies and prioritizes records, as well as the process they follow in analyzing and forecasting demand for records. Country acquisition priorities have changed over time, with evidence of such from greater camera placement in Brazil and an emphasis on multiple types of records, including but not limited to Catholic parish registers, census records, immigration records, civil registration, burial records, and baptism records. She showed many examples of records of Latin American historical figures, including Frida Kahlo, Carlos Slim, Pedro Infante, Maria Felix, Juan Peron, and Jorge Negrete. She also showed a family tree she had completed using Family Search tracing her own ancestry from San Luis Potosi, Mexico.
Preparing Records for Publication Online –
Adele Marcum (Family Search, Records Specialist for Central America and Caribbean)
Adele described her work as a records specialist and she focuses on records negotiation, digital capture, and acquisition. She also explained how Family Search creates production plans to determine the treatment of records, formatting options, and integrity of records. Adele also covered the process that Family Search has developed to create specifications for indexing and train volunteer indexer to identify pertinent information. One of the final aspects of her work is to complete a pre-publication check of metadata and standardize historical records collections before they are published online.
Research Methodology: A Librarian’s Perspective –
Debbie Gurtler (Family Search, Family History Research Specialist)
Debbie began by describing the research process step by step, from identifying what is known, to setting research goals, to selecting records to search, and obtaining these records and using the information. She recommended family sources as a starting point (family interviews, photos, records, etc.). She also gave demos and highlighted the features and tools available from Family Search, including family tree diagrams, family group records, and fan charts (with photos as a new feature on Family Search). The genealogical research process was explained in the Latin American context with an emphasis on church records and civil registration records beginning in late 19th century Latin America. Debbie described types of information in birth/baptism records, marriage records, and death/burial records. She also mentioned of how Family Search and OCLC have agreed to a partnership. The main points of searching strategies that Debbie emphasized was that less is more when using Family Search and that the use of the filter options are highly recommended.
Robert Behra (University of Utah) asked about why Family Search had no images from Uruguay published online. Adele Marcum (Family Search) answered that Family Search did not have the rights to publish the images they have from Uruguay online. Myra Appel (UC Davis) asked about institutions with limited internet access whose records have been ingested by Family Search and how they can access and use the digital versions of their records. Debbie Gurtler (Family Search) answered that Family Search provides digital copies to all institutions where they digitize records from.
Moderator: Donna Canevari de Paredes, University of Saskatchewan
Rapporteur: Jill E. Baron, Dartmouth College
John B. Wright, Brigham Young University
Discovering Self through Ancestors’ Diaries
Peter Altekrüger, Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut PK, Berlin
De Amor, Crimen y Cotidianidad. Las Revistas Teatrales y Colecciones de Novelas Cortas Argentinas del Instituto Ibero-Americano
Ricarda Musser, Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut PK, Berlin
Cultural Magazines of Latin America. An Acquisition and Digitalization Project of the Ibero-American Institute / Berlin
Silvana Jacqueline Aquino Remigio, Biblioteca Españade la Artes del Centro Cultural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru
Las Fotografías como Fuente de Información Genealógica: Breve Mirada al Caso del Archivo Courret
John Wright described growing up hearing family stories about his great-great-grandfather Oliverson. In 1992, he transcribed James Oliverson’s diaries, consisting of 2 volumes: 1884-1886, 1886-1888, plus a smaller book on business dealings. In the process of doing this transcription, he also did genealogical research. He found references to Oliverson in the Brigham Young guide to Mormon diaries and among volumes in the Utah Historical Society, where he found a total of 12 diaries ranging from 1882-1893. These diaries documented business transactions, such as selling butter, and lumber dealings. John and his father transcribed the diaries and did research on the period, trying to complete the historical context of the diaries. In sum, he found that although the diaries were written for personal use, they offer a poignant description of life at the time and offer raw material for reconstruction of the past.
Paloma Celis-Carbajal proxied for Silvana Jacqueline Aquino Remigio, as Silvana was not able to attend SALALM. Silvana’s presentation described the photographic archives of Courret, a French photographer who lived in Lima, Peru in the 19th century. Courret was one of the first photographers in Peru. He arrived in Lima in 1860, where he set up a studio and photographed Limeño society. Courret won many prizes for his work, and the archive includes around 70 years worth of material. Peru received many immigrants from 1850-1950, and the photographs register this growth and diversification of the population. The Biblioteca España de las Artes del Centro Cultural de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Perú, with the cooperation of the French government, is now digitizing the collection, and efforts will be made to identify the subjects of the photographs. This effort will involve user cooperation/input, and eventually the resource will be invaluable for investigating social, cultural and family history and immigration patterns in Peru.
Peter Altekrüger presented on a long-term project at the Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut to collect and digitize Argentine popular literature from the early 20th century, including theater magazines and short novels, or revistas teatrales and novelas cortas. This project represents 10 years worth of collecting these materials, and benefited from investment from the German government of $300,000, which paid for 10 people, digital infrastructure, the catalog and travel. The revistas teatrales and novelas cortas represent a popular genre, started in 1917. Buenos Aires was a center for theater, and these materials were originally sold in the street, in kiosks, for theater-goers. Writers for the magazines were both known and unknown. The magazines include portraits of actors, caricatures, comedies, pieces about football, advertisements, and depict the increase of working women, the marriage crisis, tango, quotidian life, eroticism. In sum, these materials reflect the growth of Buenos Aires in the 1920s, due to considerable immigration.
The collection at the IAI of revistas teatrales comprises 160 titles, or around 6000 issues, and is unique in its breadth and depth. In 2013, the majority of the collection was digitized and put online. Digitization is the only means of saving these materials as the magazines were printed on highly acidic paper. Every item is cataloged in the OPAC in addition to the digital presentation. 300,000 pages are digitized, which include maps, photographs. The IAI put on an exhibit about these materials, which will travel to the Biblioteca nacional de Argentina in 2015.
Ricarda Musser spoke about a new digitization project at the IAI involving Latin American cultural magazines. The term “cultural magazines” encompasses a wide spectrum, including the humanities, sciences, arts, etc., particularly during the period for this project, 1880-1930. What is more, the form of the articles in these magazines is diverse: stories, poems, interviews, reviews, and illustrations. Ultimately they hope to produce a digital library of around 80 Latin American cultural magazines.
For this project, the IAI benefited from funding from a German research foundation that awards grants to research libraries for developing collections and initiating new lines of research. They selected 80 titles from 6 countries, including Caras y caretas (Buenos Aires). With the funding, they were able to acquire collections and digitize them. However, they struggled with incomplete sets of magazines and sometimes poor condition of paper. To fill gaps in holdings, they have sought out the antiquarian book market in Peru and Argentina. For other items they may try to collaborate with libraries. Cataloging was performed with IAI money. It will take 36 months to finish the project. They started in June 2013 with “Nativa” (Argentina) 1924-1973, and all who are interested should contact Ricarda for a complete list of titles.
Moderator Donna Canevari de Paredes (University of Saskatchewan) asked John Wright what was the most surprising thing you found in the diaries? He answered that he didn’t know that his great-great-grandfather had lived in Montana for a time. John kept finding references to “Dylan,” and realized that he was talking about a town in Montana. The process of transcribing the diaries revealed a real person.
Irene Munster (University of Maryland) asked Peter if any of the titles that you are digitizing were intended for immigrants? Peter answered that among them include translations of Russian authors, but otherwise does not know. Ultimately he hopes that scholars will be able to answer this question. He is surprised already at the amount of interest in these materials; already 30 scholars from Argentina have come to use these materials, studying all manner of topics.
David Block (University of Texas) asked Peter if he started collecting these materials at the suggestion of your researchers, or of your own doing? Peter answered that this project was originally his own idea. When they started, they had about 20 titles, and it seemed doable, but with each trip, he found more and more titles and the project grew. While the bibliographic description seemed good, he later found that it is often wrong, and has been a significant challenge. Into the future, they may not continue to collect at the same scale.
Moderator: Álvaro Risso (Librería Linardi y Risso)
Rapporteur: Wendy Pedersen (Universidad de Nuevo México
Julio Marchena, Libros Peruanos S.A.
Nuevas Tendencias en la Industria Editorial Peruana
Fernando Genovart, Librería García Cambeiro
Argentinean Academic Publishing Industry, Monographs
Vera de Araujo-Shellard, Susan Bach Books from Brazil
Sandra Soares de Costa, Susan Bach Books from Brazil
Publishing Trends in Contemporary Brazil: Who is Minding the Book Store?
S. Lief Adleson, Books from Mexico
Pedro Figueroa, Books from Mexico
Among Books and Dealers: Constants and Changes in the Mexican Academic Publishing Industry
S. Lief Adleson, Books from Mexico
Preliminary Report of the Acquisitions Trends Survey Task Force
Julio Marchena discussed developments in Peruvian publishing. Peru was the featured country this year at the FILBO in Bogotá. He points out that several important contemporary Peruvian authors were first published outside of Peru, names such as Diego Trelles, Jerónimo Pimentel, Jeremías Gamboa, & Gabriela Weiner. “Marca Perú” is a current branding project, a collaborative marketing strategy and a sign of an expanding publishing industry. Noting a connection between malnutrition and illiteracy, efforts are under way to popularize reading in the barrios.
Fernando Genovart discussed Argentina’s 300% increase in publishing since the 1990s. Argentina is currently 4th in production. In 2013, the number for hard copy books was 23,316 and for e-books, 4,441 – many of which were editions of works now out-of-copyright. Buenos Aires Province produces 89% of Argentina’s output. Print runs are smaller and printing on demand is common, all of which is having a negative effect on bookstores. Fernando advises us that Argentina produces numerous journals that show no US holdings and are not available by Open Access.
Vera Araújo and Sandra Soares offered some numbers and then some analysis on the state of publishing in Brazil. In 2013 almost 84,000 titles of all types were published, largely translations. About 5,000 are titles of academic interest; it was noted that Harvard only took 2,500 of these. The greatest numbers of Brazilian publishers are in São Paulo, followed by Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Print runs are dwindling, which accounts for the appearance of so many “edições” of the same title. Publication of devotional material is surging and much of it is being sold to the State, for reasons unknown. Seasonally, the first books to come out each year are school books, with most works carrying the current year imprint appearing in May and later. For approval plans, this makes a case for allowing the previous year’s imprints. Regarding e-books, Vera says, “You don’t see them anywhere”. According to data compiled by the Câmara Brasileira do Livro, e-book publishing grew by 350% from 2011 to 2012, yet comprised less than 1% of billing.
In Mexico, Lief Adelson and Pedro Figueroa report that most academic publications are directly or indirectly susidized by government, and partnering is widely practiced. History: after the 1985 earthquake, decentralization of many institutions took hold, with public money moving out into the states. Now 40-50% of publishing happens outside the Distrito Federal. There is much more coming out from regional universities, their research institutes, and “institutos culturales estatales”. Private commercial publishers are in flux; production is declining at Plaza Y Valdez and Siglo Veintiuno. Even FCE (Fondo de Cultura Económica), by far the most widespread imprint in Latin America, dipped in 2013. Newer publishers such as Bonilla-Artigas, Cacciani, Ediciones Endora & Editorial Terracota are on the rise. As in other countries, the size of print runs is down (500 average for academic works) and print-on-demand is more common. Prices are rising. Although academic departments are under pressure to publish electronically, Mexico produces the lowest number of e-books in Latin America and there is no consensus on platforms. INEGI has stopped printing altogether and now offers their born-digital statistical materials exclusively online.
Paloma Celis-Carbajal briefly discussed the charge of SALALM’s Acquisitions Trends Survey Task Force.
Moderator: Wendy Pedersen, University of New Mexico
Rapporteur: Michael Scott, Georgetown University
Paulita Aguilar, University of New Mexico
Cultural Connections between A Zapotecan Village, Teotitlan del Valle, and New Mexico Pueblos: Imagined or Real?
Claire-Lise Bénaud, University of New Mexico
Ordinary Images: Appreciating Photographs of Children in a Pictorial Archive
Michael Hoopes w/Suzanne M. Schadl, University of New Mexico
All in the Family: Special Collections Digitally Born
Paulita Aguilar, University of New Mexico: “Cultural Connections Between a Zapotecan Village, Teotitlan del Valle, and New Mexico Puebloans: Imagined or Real?”
Aguilar, a Puebloan from Santo Domingo, New Mexico, discussed possible cultural connections between the Pueblo Indians and the Zapotecs of Teotitlan del Valle in Oaxaca State, Mexico. She began by describing how long it takes to walk between the two places, about 40 days each way. There were several trade routes between them, so there was a great amount of cultural contact.
Aguilar demonstrated some of these cultural similarities by comparing a sample of New Mexican rock art to an image from an Aztec codex. A trader appears in the Aztec image, and it is similar to the kokopelli (flute player) image in the New Mexican rock art. In Pueblo pictorial narratives, the kokopelli is depicted carrying things in his pack, especially seeds, which were indeed traded along the routes.
Next, Aguilar talked about specific trade items. Theobroma cacao began in central and southern Mexico, and gradually spread to both the present-day American southwest and Central America. Traces of cacao have been found in pots at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Patricia Crown at UNM studied these traces, and some may have been part of religious ceremonies. Therefore religious customs may have followed these same trade routes as well.
The range of the scarlet macaw spans from southeastern Mexico to the south into Ecuador and northwestern Brazil. Scarlet macaw feathers, although the species is not native to the southwestern United States is used in Hopi buffalo dances. Two Pueblo tribes are of the Macaw clan as well.
Turquoise was another trade item between present-day Mexico and New Mexico. Not only were there turquoise mines in Sonora State, Mexico, Arizona, and New Mexico, but there are also several linguistic similarities between the Nahuatl and Pueblo words for turquoise. The Zuni Pueblo has its own language which is related to Nahuatl.
Next, Aguilar discussed her observations in Mexico. Teotitlan del Valle is a village about 20 miles east of Oaxaca city. Aguilar visited Teotitlan and other neighboring villages for her research. At Mitla there is a large archaeological site, and many of its symbols are similar to those found in Pueblo architecture.
Elsie Clews Parsons was an anthropologist who researched Pueblo Indians in the early 20th century. Parsons was studied the Pueblo people, and even had “informants” among women. Parsons lived in Mitla for about a year, and she wrote that she observed many similarities to the American Southwest. Aguilar continued with the comparisons and striking resemblances in the architecture (churches, adobe homes, etc.) and the people of the two places.
While Aguilar was in Mexico, the Teotitlan del Valle museum had an exhibit on Día de los muertos, which is also celebrated among indigenous New Mexicans. The Pueblo’s Matachines dance bears a strong resemblance to Danza de las Plumas in Teotitlan del Valle. The Museum also had a display of an indigenous wedding, which is similar to those in the Pueblos.
In the future, Aguilar would like to see if there are clan-like systems among the Zapotec of Oaxaca similar to those of the Pueblos, and also wishes to deepen the comparisons to language, food preparation, child rearing, naming ceremonies, healing ceremonies, and so on. This may be difficult, because even among her own Macaw clan in Santo Domingo, she will likely face a great deal of resentment and unwillingness to cooperate with an anthropological study.
Claire-Lise Bénaud, University of New Mexico: “Ordinary Images: Appreciating Photographs of Children in a Pictorial Archive”
Bénaud discussed photographs of children in archive at the University of New Mexico special collections. The majority of the photographs are ordinary, but still reveal much. Most were taken by studio photographers in Mexico City, Durango, León, Veracruz and two photographic studios in Albuquerque and Chloride, New Mexico. One of Bénaud’s intents was to highlight the importance of collecting the ordinary and common, instead of the usual focus on unique materials. The photographs date from the late 19th century through World War One.
The photographs can tell us many things: what is image about? who was photographer? And how was it influenced by traditional culture? In a sense they can act as evidence of the time-period, as Susan Sontag wrote, and photographs of children “show us what we want to be.”
During the 19th century, going to the studio was a ritual of parenthood, especially for wealthier families. Bénaud “read” an example of a photograph, demonstrating its implicit societal values. In general, fathers are generally in a more prominent position; they do not hold their children, but protect them, or they are portrayed as educator (teacher). Bénaud continued with several more examples from the archive. In one photo, the father holds the child, and there is no mother in this picture (she may no longer be alive), so he portrays both roles at the same time.
There are many more photographs of children with their mothers than fathers. Smiling is rare, and the children appear to be obedient and stare at the camera; mothers’ poses tend to be loving, but with a stern expression. Bénaud presented several more examples of photographs of mothers with children, and interpreted them for the audience.
Next, Bénaud then turned to the backgrounds used in the photographs. When a background is present, they are often meant to convey opulence, as presented in another sample from the archive, although most have no background. Fathers in the photographs do not tend to express tenderness.
The next topic was babies. The archive contains many photographs of babies in christening. The large size of the gowns, often overpowering child his or herself signifies that the event has more significance than the child itself. Bénaud again returned to examples. Occasionally toys and other objects from the outside world also appeared in the photographs of children and babies, and these props always looked fresh and unused. In other photographs, sisters sometimes take on role of mothers, posing as if they are looking after their younger siblings.
Bénaud then explained the concept of the romantic child, which is derived from Rousseau’s idealization of children as inherently good and innocent. This notion transformed childhood in the modern age; in paintings before photography, children were originally seen as adults in the making, rather than innocent and pure, as is often the case now. Bénaud presented these ideas in an example of child that looks like a bride, and in another which is a brother and sister were presented as bride and groom.
Returning to the backdrops, the ones depicting outdoor scenes are always serene and idyllic. To match this backdrop, the children occasionally are presented as idealized innocent rural peasants. Often to match these bucolic backdrops and to show children’s connections with nature, both in New Mexico and Mexico, dogs are often present, especially in the case of boys. In the rarer urban backdrops, children as presented as refined and educated, such as posing with a violin.
In these highly idealized settings, parents project their feelings about the future. These very ordinary photographs gloss over the conflict and difficulties that many face in their lives, as much as now as then.
Michael Hoopes and Suzanne Schadl, University of New Mexico (presented by Wendy Pedersen): “All in the Family: Special Collections Digitally Born”
Wendy Pedersen of the University of New Mexico presented the work of UNM graduate student Michael Hoopes, who used the Archive-It web archiving service to capture and archive digitally-born resources. Hoopes captured images related to and produced by the print-making collective Asamblea de Artistas de Revolucionarios de Oaxaca (ASARO). Much of the work produced by ASARO was born digitally, so Hoopes used the tool Archive-it to capture the images as well as any attached metadata. UNM also added metadata to make the images even more searchable.
Pedersen provided a demonstration of Archive-It, and showed how they appeared in the New Mexico Digital Collections page. Archive-It allows partners who use it to easily harvest, catalog, and manage their born-digital collections. The collections themselves are hosted at the Internet Archive, yet they also form part of UNM’s digital collections.
Lastly, Pedersen demonstrated that many of these images are no longer on the Web, so services like Archive-It are important for long-term archiving.
Mark Grover, BYU: What is the significance of Chaco Canyon?
A (Paulita Aguilar): It is northeast of Albuquerque and important trading site. It may have had influence all the way into Mexico City and the Yucatan. Aguilar wants to look at all kinds of connections (linguistic, trade, etc.)
Brenda Salem, University of Pittsburgh: What is the criteria for archiving the sites?
A (Wendy Pedersen): Get in touch with Suzanne Schadl, who spearheaded the project.
Moderator: Alison Hicks, University of Colorado, Boulder
Rapporteur: Melissa Gasparotto, Rutgers University
Paula Covington, Vanderbilt University
Latin American Digital Projects: Student, Faculty and Library Collaborations at Vanderbilt University
Anne Barnhart, University of West Georgia
Because Learning Is Not Just for Students: Information Literacy for Faculty
Sarah Buck Kachaluba, Florida State University
Follow Up to “From Dub Assessment to Smart Assessment”: Adaptions for FSU Libraries
Suzanne M. Schadl, University of New Mexico
Tagging ASARO: A UNM Experiment in Crowd-Sourcing and Collection Development
Daisy V. Domínguez, The City College of New York Libraries (CUNY)
Teach With Music
Molly E. Molloy, New Mexico State University
The Femicide Fallacy
Barbara Alvarez, University of Michigan
Don Quixote in English: A Chronology: A Digital Humanities Project for the Classroom
Paula presented on a Dean’s fellows program at Vanderbilt Libraries to pair advanced undergraduates and graduate students with a librarian mentor, usually to work on digitization projects (this can include metadata, digitizing, etc.). Many students end up using these digital collections when working on their dissertations, too.
She gave several examples of current fellows and their projects.
● Helguera Collection of Colombiana
This Colombia-in-the-19th-century project includes descriptive thematic essays. The essays are done as a separate independent study. The collection includes broadsides, pamphlets and programas.
● Oral histories from the Manuel Zapata Olivella Papers
Zapata Olivella was an Afro-Colombian novelist and anthropologist. The collection includes transcriptions of interviews with ancianos that students in colegios across Colombia interviewed. The hope is to add tapes at some point.
● Ecclesiastical & Secular Sources for Slave Societies
This project digitally preserves Cuban, Colombian and Brazilian church and clerical documents relating to Africans and Afro-decedents. Among its uses is genealogy.
Anne Barnhart, University of West Georgia
Because Learning Is Not Just for Students: Information Literacy for Faculty
Anne presented on teaching information literacy workshops for faculty at University of West Georgia. She noted that faculty may have tunnel vision, and can be hard to reach with librarians’ information literacy message. They’re pulled in several directions already, but are also envious that librarians have the opportunity to go to conferences where they learn to teach and about new research in pedagogy. Anne established a workshop series called “GoodLibrations: Because learning is not just for students,” in response to this need. She provided food and alcohol as an incentive to attend.
Some of the topics included: leveraging Google apps, information ethics, using Adobe Creative Suite, practices for teaching critical thinking, Endnote, a celebration of faculty research that was especially popular, and a promotion & tenure dossier workshop. The topics were chosen by questionnaire.
Anne also helped plan and organized the Innovations in pedagogy conference, to address lack of pedagogy instruction for faculty. To help learn about how to teach faculty, she attended POD.
Sarah Buck Kachaluba, Florida State University
Follow Up to “From Dumb Assessment to Smart Assessment”: Adaptions for FSU Libraries
Sarah attended the “From Dumb Assessment to Smart Assessment” session at SALALM and got a lot out of it. She incorporated a version of that workshop into the FSU Libraries public services retreat. She developed 3 power points (active learning, writing student learning outcomes and one on assessment) that were heavily cribbed from Alison Hicks, Anne Barnhart, Meghan Lacey & AJ Johnson. She also developed templates for writing student outcomes for different disciplines. A few liaisons who did a lot of instruction found it very useful.
There were, however, limitations: some folks in mid management were pulled away in the middle and they would have benefitted. Moreover, nly public services librarians were there so some liaisons missed out.
Sarah detailed the ways she’s incorporated these strategies into her own instruction:
● She’s started handing out worksheets for students to work in pairs to brainstorm resources they could use to find primary and secondary sources, and posting these worksheets on a wall so others could provide feedback. This didn’t work very well, so now she’s developed pre and post-session assessment handouts.
- The pre- asks students why their research topics are and to identify things they want to learn during the session.
- The post- asks for 1-3 things students learned and 1 thing they want to learn in the next sessions
She has gotten positive feedback from this
● Sarah has also developed and taught a 3-hour session, where she used the worksheet again. This gave her productive feedback to use as they searched. She asked students to send her one resource they found during the session but few followed through.
The assessment workshop skills she learned have also helped her in other ways: she recently was able to help a colleague who needed to write student learning outcomes for a conference panel proposal.
Suzanne M. Schadl, University of New Mexico
Tagging ASARO: A UNM Experiment in Crowd-Sourcing and Collection Development
Suzanne talked about her work on the exhibit, Tagging ASARO: UNM experiment in crowd-sourcing and collection development (done with Mike Graham de la Rosa among others) at the National Hispanic Cultural Center.
Various people were involved in the design of the exhibit, including Americorps interns who brought their own stenciling art skills to the installation because of how inspired they were by ASARO’s work.
ASARO: Assembly of Revolutionary Artists of Oaxaca is participatory and about “getting up” and getting the word out. They use varied formats and venues. The goal of the exhibit was to transform and reframe work of this collective for the in the spirit of their own work but in a different context. The exhibit alters the context and creates dialogue – making connections between Oaxaca and Albuquerque. Suzanne has been working with Archive-it to archive digital files uploaded to ASARO website
The crowdsourcing element of the exhibit involved asking visitors to “tag” items using notecards. This was designed to foster community engagement with library. This crowdsourcing wasn’t so much about outsourcing descriptions and metadata but rather a “getting up” community response in the archives. (There was an issue with word “tag” and it’s multiple meanings. So it was important to encourage people to tag but not bring spray paint!)
There are going to be 5 community forums around the exhibit. The first one was a poetry slam with Nolan Eskeets. The tags and performances from this event are now part of this collection as well.
In two months they’ve had many cards posted, but nothing from the online component has been tagged. There is one place where comments not being posted. -The cave. This is in a different media format, so perhaps visitors are less able to interact with it than something in a frame on a wall.
Daisy V. Domínguez, The City College of New York Libraries (CUNY)
Teach With Music
Daisy observed that film is a preferred AV teaching tool in the classroom. She sent out a survey for Latin American Studies faculty on use of AV in LAS teaching. One professor suggested making a database, which she did using Omeka and it’s called Teach with Music. Currently it is hosted on her personal website: daisilla.org/omeka
The database includes titles of songs along with subjects, tags, a description, and how it can be used in education, all of which is contributed from LAS faculty. She demonstrated the usefulness of the database by playing some clips. One song about Oscar Romero has been used to talk about the church in a positive way via church activism. Another song, Zumbi by Jorge Ben, was suggested by a professor because it can be used to talk about plantation work by maroons, and the complexity of slave experience.
There are plans to connect this database to other databases like HAPI to help give thematic context to the themes explored in the songs.
Molly E. Molloy, New Mexico State University
The Femicide Fallacy
Molly presented about the news coverage about Juarez that has been dominated by femicide. She described the sensationalized coverage of sexualized murders of women in Juarez, arguing that this is not representative of the facts, and distracts from the problems facing the city. The picture is much more complicated that presented in the media because women are killed for a variety of reasons that may not have to do with their gender. She documented the various movies, books and pop culture references to the murders of women in Juarez, noting that much of the “information” available is speculation and not founded by reputable sources. The main book responsible for this perception is Cosecha de Mujeres, which brought the issue to public recognition, but the book is very poorly sourced.
Actual numbers reveal that a small percentage of homicides are women (9% of victims on average over 24 years). By comparison, in US that percentage is 22%. The Philadelphia Inquirer did an interactive database with charts of murders by gender, comparing Juarez and Philadelphia (because Philadelphia is similar in population). Juarez numbers are much higher for most years. However at the peak of hyper violence beginning in 2008, the rate really spikes incredibly. Women’s rates go up in tandem with men’s, however, not nearly as much. But both are higher than rates of murder in Philly. The murder rate spiked in 2008-2011, but is now on steep decline. In news articles searching, 9.2% of articles about Juarez are about femicide but in academic literature number that is 44%. The scholarly attention is out of proportion with reality.
There is a sense in the media that men killed in Juarez deserve it because they must be involved in narco-business, which is why there is so much less coverage of the hyperviolence that predominantly affects men.
Molly described many of the more commonly heard fallacies:
● Thousands of factory girls have been raped mutilated, etc.
- 3/4 of deaths are domestic violence and only 12 out of 427 cases show mutilations
● Since hyper violence began, women killed in same way that men are
● Most of the women’s murders are unsolved because they are not cared about,
- In truth there is a lack of prosecution across the board
She closed by reiterating that all of the lives lost in Juarez matter, not just women. All people are victims. Focusing on the deaths of women distracts and prevents people from dealing with the widespread slaughter of men and women.
Barbara Alvarez, University of Michigan
Don Quixote in English: A Chronology: A Digital Humanities Project for the Classroom
Barbara talked about the development of an online interactive chronology of translations of Don Quixote into English. At the University of Michigan, there are themed semesters. One semester the theme was language and translation, and the libraries and departments put on events to highlight that theme.
Barbara wanted to highlight the collections and also digital humanities with her project, so she developed a digital chronology project of the various editions of Don Quixote in English. It covers 1612 to the present day. For each entry they created bibliographic information with book cover images (if that title was available in their own collection), and linked to all editions of that particular translation available in the catalog. After the first version of the project, students worked to redesign it and augment it for usefulness. More features were added and the layout and design were made friendlier. A comparison feature was added in, which allows users to compare the original to various translations or to compare one translation to another. A bibliography was included as well, with information on various translations.
Gains from the project included:
● Students were so engaged with and excited about the project.
● Gaining new insights into the history of Don Quixote translations
● Learning about research methods in Digital Humanities
● See Digital Humanities in action through the Hispanic Baroque and The Cervantes Project
● Learning about web design and accessibility
● Having a librarian embedded in the course
Moderator: Jennifer Osorio, University of California, Los Angeles
Rapporteur: Christine Hernández, Tulane University
Sarah Aponte, CUNY Dominican Studies Institute Archive & The City College of New York Libraries
The Building of an Academic Dominican Library: Impact at the Local Level and Beyond
Nelson Santana, CUNY Dominican Studies Institute Archives & The City College of New York Libraries
Introduction to the Intellectual History of Dominican Migration in the United States
María del Mar González-González, University of Utah (*ALZAR invited speaker)
Identity Politics and Puerto Rican Visual Resources: Notes from the Field
The moderator, Dr. Jennifer Osorio, begins the session by thanking the audience and the presenters for their attendance. She introduces the first presenter, Dr. Sarah Aponte from CUNY Dominican Studies Institute Archives & the City College of New York Libraries.
Dr. Aponte makes a brief introduction about the Dominican community in the United States to put into context the establishment and growth of the Dominican Institute Archives at CUNY. The aim of the presentation is to showcase the variety of public outreach programs conducted by the Dominican Library with the goal of using library and archive resources to teach people about the Dominican immigrant experience. It was a single donated collection that became the seed collection for the library and the growth of its holding is fueled primarily through donations.
The first program discussed is the “Bridge to College Program” which aims to engage eighth graders with primary sources. She provides images of an art exhibit as an example.
Another series of workshops are held for education students at the undergraduate and graduate level. The purpose of these workshops is to introduce up and coming educators to the resources available at the Institute for teaching Dominican history and heritage. Dr. Aponte uses the example of the Cuco figure (a kind of “boogie man”) in Dominican mythology and how it used by Dominican parents to discipline children.
The library also has space to host workshops. An example given is the participation by the library in a cultural program put on by the Isabella Geriatric Center. Seniors from the center visit the library. On one occasion, the librarians ask the visitors about a Dominican political figure, J. Trujillo, which provoked a lot of feedback from seniors that turned out to be a learning opportunity for the librarians. Dr. Aponte explains how this experience showcases how the library and its resources provided a fertile opportunity to connect with surrounding community.
The next presentation was given by Nelson Santana, also representing the Dominican Studies Institute Archives.
Nelson begins by explaining that people who can trace their ancestry back to the Dominican Republic comprise the largest Latino immigrant group in New York City. He goes on to list a number of people of Dominican descent to achieve notoriety in the politics, athletics, entertainment, and literary circles of mainstream society in the United States. Most of the people named by Nelson were recent immigrants, post 1950s, and he poses two questions that the remainder of his presentation will answer: from where did these people come and why did they immigrate to the United States?
He moves on to a brief summary of the history of the Caribbean island once called Quisqueya/Ayití that now contains the modern nations of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Tainos were the original inhabitants of the island when Columbus first landed in 1492, according to Bartolome de las Casas. As a result of Spanish subjugation and forced labor, the resident Taino population declined and peoples from western and central Africa were imported. Dominicans today are the product of three peoples and cultures: Tainos, Europeans (mostly Spaniards), and Africans. The construction of present day Dominican identity began in the early to middle nineteenth century after Dominicans won their independence first from Haiti in 1844, and secondly from Spain in 1865.
The main theme of Nelson’s presentation is his discussion of the history of Dominican immigration and how until recently, the Dominican immigrant experience has been either largely overlooked by mainstream United States history texts and popular media outlets or it has been misconstrued as being a recent social phenomenon. He also notes that part of the challenge for recognition of Dominican contributions is that they are often viewed as distinct from the Hispano and other Latino minority groups in United States society. He cites the work of three eminent Dominican scholars (Dr. Silvio Torres-Saillant, Dr. Daisy Cocco De Filippis, and Dr. Ramona Hernández) who challenge the popular notion that Dominicans are “new” Americans or “recent” immigrants because the first recognized major wave of Dominican immigration dates only to the 1960s. A fair amount of work by these scholars has been to elucidate the history of intellectual thought and academic contributions by Dominicans throughout the twentieth century.
Nelson explains that the Dominican capital of Santo Domingo has been and continues to be the epicenter of Dominican migration and New York City to be the favored place of destination. Dominicans have deep ties to New York City going back to the early 1600s. One of the earliest documented settlers to the New York City area (c. 1613) was of Dominican ancestry. But, Dominican immigrants still maintain ties to their homeland and one way in which this is accomplished is through Dominican-owned newspapers, magazines, and web-based news portals, blogs, and other Internet media outlets. The history of Dominican publication efforts can be traced back to the late nineteenth century.
The best known wave of Dominican immigration was that related to the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo who held power in the Dominican Republic from 1930 until 1961. During the 1950s and 1960s, working class Dominicans migrated to the United States because of economic and social hardships. After the fall of Trujillo, more Dominican professionals began leaving their homeland for the United States. Some of these more recent professional migrants were among those who helped to found Dominican civic, social, and political organizations and networks in the United States that are still in existence today. Nelson finishes his presentation by enumerating a number of important Dominican intellectuals and literary figures who have made important contributions to modern North American society.
Dr. María del Mar González-González of the University of Utah gave the final presentation.
She begins by thanking the moderator, fellow participants, and those in attendance. She gives a brief biography of herself and her research which focuses on the San Juan Art Bienal organized by the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture. Her presentation is drawn from her experiences and impressions of the state of archives and art related collections in Puerto Rico as she found them on a recent research trip to the island. During her trip, she visited several public and private archives in Puerto Rico and in the United States and the focus of her talk is to discuss how the current state of political ambiguity in Puerto Rico influences the production of art, art collecting, and art historical research both internally and externally to the island of Puerto Rico, and this in turn impacts how government funded archives are managed and maintained. Political strife and restrictions in the form of government shutdowns, police occupation of campuses, and budget shortages strongly impact a researcher’s ability to access collections.
She notes that visual art collections tend to be fragile and ephemeral and scattered or fragmented across archives. As a whole, the materials can tell us about local artists and art communities, exhibition and curatorial practices, and their relationships among each other and with artists abroad. Current conditions of archival disorganization and poor management of repositories puts the historical record of Puerto Rican artists and art communities in danger of being “lost” altogether.
Her first example concerns a visit to the División de Artes Plásticos at the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture to search for records regarding art Bienal events. She shows several images to demonstrate several areas of concern within this particular archive. They include poor environmental control, poor administration and records control, and poor security.
Her next visit was to the Archivo General y Biblioteca Nacional de Puerto Rico. This is the largest repository of historical documents on the island. Doctor G. González describes a number of administrative challenges that made her attempts to schedule research visits to the archive difficult. She notes that although some basic archival standards are met by the National Archive, other basics, like inventory control, were not so. She lists several government processes that negatively impact archives in Puerto Rico and she notes that it is her impression that art archives in particular are not a priority.
She goes on to describe her visits to the Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Rico y el Caribe, the Library of M. Lázaro, and the Museo de Historia, Antropología, y Arte de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. In the cases of these repositories, Dr. G. González mentions that she found the conditions in private institutions to be better and access to rare materials and periodicals more attainable than she was ever able to achieve in the government run archives. One disadvantage to these smaller institutions for visiting researchers is that they have smaller budgets and minimal staff.
In her conclusions, Dr. G. González describes the situation of historical archives in Puerto Rico, especially for art, to be most worrisome. Political and economic difficulties in Puerto Rico often result in the sale or transfer of important collections as was the case of a loss of material to the Smithsonian Institution in the United States. There is a lack of value, responsibility, and knowledge about the curation and preservation of the island’s history. She cites a need for more cooperation among the island’s archival institutions. She finishes with several suggestions that would help to improve the situation. One would be to conduct a survey of the island’s archival collections and research and exhibition projects involving archival materials. A second would entail the creation of a network among Puerto Rican scholars. A third suggestion would be to create a bibliography of visual resources in Puerto Rico to help facilitate access and to invigorate collaborative projects among researchers and archivists.
The Question and Answer period began with a question from Antonio Sotomayor of the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana to Dr. G. González: As you explain in your presentation, there is a lot of politics involved in archives. Have you experienced certain hassles in order to access things? So, if you study politics in art and since administrations and ideologies change every four years, have you ever had problems due to political or administration changes?
Dr. G. González answered that she has not experienced such problems related to her research topic, but has come up against walls that are more related to her lack of personal relationships with island archivists and senior researchers. She has had more problems getting access to materials due to building maintenance breakdowns and to social shut-downs. Because her research is involved with the arts and island archivists tend to be more liberal, so she has had few problems related to political ideology. There are biases involved with materials regarding statehood. The pro-statehood topic is rarely seen in the arts and the bias seen in collections is the more the result of poor archiving policies.
A second question to Dr. G. González came from Javier Talibano, consultant, who asked if Dr. G. González had only visited San Juan to do her research. Dr. G. González responds that she had in fact visited various cities, including Ponce, to which Mr. Talibano notes that he has not experienced the level of difficulties that Dr. G. González has had to get access to materials, but agrees that there still continue to be problems of access and difficulties in locating materials in Puerto Rican archives, especially for foreign researchers, and changes in government administrations exacerbate these on-going issues, but he maintains that the situation is improving. He encourages Dr. G. González to continue her research and offers his help for future visits.
Wendy Griffin, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional Francisco Morazán, made a comment to Dr. G. González. She stated that there is poor care in Honduras for black and indigenous communities. Not only does there continue to exist a denial on the part of the government, but a mandated restriction of the inclusion of historical documentation of these communities. A master’s thesis on the topic was cited. She suggested several grant opportunities that could be sought through the National Endowment for the Humanities (namely the Bridging Cultures initiative) and Wikipedia outreach programs about artists. She noted however that the producers of Wikipedia do not recognize Central America and the Caribbean as separate geographic areas but that they [Wikipedia] do want to recruit Latinos to write for the website. She described the efforts made by the Garifuna community in New York City as an example of successfully collecting historical and cultural information for writing Wikipedia articles about Honduran Garifunas. She noted that Wikipedia will fund such efforts.
Dr. G. González responded that she is aware of funding resources but not sure why people in Puerto Rico are not tapping into them, though it may likely be due to their heavy workloads. She explained that there is a great online archive called Documents of Twentieth Century Latin American Art hosted by the Museum of Fine Art in Houston and the project was spearheaded by Curator M. Ramírez. Curator Ramírez has successfully gotten funding via soft money grants and support from Latin American contacts to create the archive and keep it going. Dr. G. González sees this as a model project and encouraged members of the audience to use this resource.
Wendy Griffin , Universidad Pedagógica Nacional Francisco Morazán, rebutted with a comment about how US government grant money cannot be applied for by foreign nationals. Dr. G. González acknowledged that research in Latin American countries and on Latin American topics often restricts the number of grant competitions that can be sought to do research such as hers.
Suzanne Schadl, University of New Mexico, thanked all of the presenters and noted that the presence of SALALM award and grant recipients and invited guest on a panel concerning library resources for Latinos and Latino communities that are not well documented suggests that there is desire and a need for this type of work. She put out a general call to the audience to reach out to granting agencies, institutions, units within SALALM itself, especially ALZAR (the committee for Academic Latina/o Zone of Activism & Research), to support efforts to document lesser known communities and their histories, to make suggestions about how to do this work better, and that these kinds of efforts require outreach.
Jennifer Osorio, University of California-LA, questioned Dr. Sarah Aponte: I was interested in the senior citizen program at the Dominican Institute and would like to ask whether you have done any work to document those stories or thought about connecting those stories with the children you have coming in to the Institute?
Dr. Aponte responded that she agrees there is a need to do more oral history because we are losing these elder Dominicans. She cited an example, and agreed that it would be a good idea to be able to engage younger generations with the histories recounted by elder Dominicans.
Javier Talibano, consultant, questioned Dr. Aponte about the focus of the Dominican Institute on Dominicans solely in New York City.
Dr. Aponte explained why the focus and the strength of the Dominican Institute’s holdings are on Dominicans in New York City.
Nelson Santana, Dominican Studies Institute, added to Dr. Aponte’s response by explaining how the Institute grows through the receipt and processing of donations by local people and that his personal work load and specialty is going to concern the Dominican immigrant experience throughout the United States.
Javier Talibano, consultant, asked Nelson Santana the following: What parallels are there between earlier (1950s & 1960s) waves and more recent waves of Dominican immigration?
Nelson Santana, Dominican Studies Institute, responded Mr. Talibano by describing the scholarly research and book published by his mentor on a similar comparative analysis of Puerto Rican immigration to New York.
Wendy Griffin, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional Francisco Morazán, stated that there is a project by the Smithsonian Institution to mount an exhibit on the indigenous elements in Caribbean culture and she asked Dr. Sarah Aponte if the curators of this exhibit had been in contact with her and/or the Institute to participate.
Dr. Aponte answered yes to the question. She explained that the Dominican Institute is working in collaboration on this very exhibit. They are going to loan artifacts related to music and will be contributing to a section of the project related to immigration.
This ended the Question and Answer period. The moderator thanked the presenters, rapporteur, and audience for their attendance.
Moderator: D. Ryan Lynch (Knox College)
Rapporteur: David Woken (University of Oregon)
Eduardo A. Ortiz, Utah State University
Cache Valley Utah Latino Voices and History
Fahina Tavake-Pasi, National Tongan American Society
Pacific Islanders: Our Past, Key to a Healthier Future
Leslie G. Kelen, Center for Documentary Expression and Art
Documentary and Ethnic Identity: Challenges and Possibilities
D. Ryan Lynch, Knox College
Strange Bedfellows: How a Science Museum, a State Agency, and Local Organizers Made It Possible to Re-Write Rochester, New York’s History
Eduardo A. Ortiz presented “Cache Valley Utah Latino Voices and History,” about the Latino Voice Project. The project began interviewing people in the Hispanic/Latino community of Cache Valley in 2007. In 2012 Ortiz reviewed those interviews and pointed out that the different experiences of newer and younger immigrants, people who came to U.S. young, and those who have immigrant parents need to be noted, so they interviewed seven Cache Valley high school students and conducted focus groups with his students at Utah State.
In the 1980s Cache Valley was 1.2% “Spanish-language origin”, with the population growing from 150 to 1600 people (2.4%) in the 20 years between 1970 and 1990, and then tripling by 2000 to 5700 (6.3%). This change was in part due to the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act as well as immigrants moving from “gateway” areas like New York, Texas, California, or Florida to other parts of the country. Cache Valley’s largest industry is education (Utah State the largest employer), with some manufacturing and agricultural work.
By 2010 Cache Valley was 10% Hispanic/Latino (about 11,000 people), the majority Mexican in origin (about 8%). In 1970, 42% Cache Valley’s Hispanic/Latino population over 25 years old had some college-education, compared to 52% in 1980, and back down to 42% in 1990. This then dropped precipitously down to 20% in 2000, with women educated in much smaller numbers than men, though the percentage of college-educated Hispanics/Latinos was back up again in 2010. The Hispanic/Latino population in Cache Valley was majority male in 1970, but by 2010 the gender gap had decreased greatly. Currently Cache Valley’s Hispanic/Latino community’s median age is 21 years old (vs. 40 nationwide, 30 in Utah, and 26 among Cache Valley’ white population). Employment rates of Cache Valley’s white and Hispanic/Latino populations are similar, but the poverty rate is higher among the Hispanic/Latino population.
Interviewees note they are often looked down on as “illegals,” but when they point to their own education or personal achievements (“I am an engineer” or “I am finishing my Master’s”), that treatment changes. They also report more positive interactions in their churches. Some first-generation immigrants seek to “integrate” with the white population’s cultural norms. However, immigration status is a factor in this. A major 2006 immigration raid swept up about 150 people and had serious emotional, psychological, social, and economic effects on Latina/o youth. The second generation feels “stronger” but still wants to stay part of their family networks and not lose touch with their origins. They are often responsible to care for siblings and extended families. The Hispanic/Latino community in Cache Valley faces many challenges that should not be generalized and need to be understood within context. They need help to overcome social, psychological, emotional, and political challenges they face.
Fahina Tavake-Pasi presented “Pacific Islanders: Our Past, Key to a Healthier Future,” about an oral history project that collected stories among Utah’s sizable Pacific Islander (specifically Tongan and Samoan) community, touching on public health issues in addition to community history. The Pacific Islands consist of three areas, Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia, which are united and communicate with each other via the ocean. Pacific islanders are “champions in traveling the oceans,” for centuries living and working with nature to gather food from the ocean and farm limited lands with men and children working outside the home while women produce household goods (homes, baskets, blankets, etc.) from bark and leaves. The first European arrivals noted a remarkably strong, healthy population with strong family ties.
Pacific islanders began arriving in Utah in the late 1800s after Mormon missions came to the Pacific. Many were brought to build the Mormon temple in Utah in the early 20th Century, and the first LDS temple outside the continental U.S. was in Hawaii. The biggest influx of Pacific Islanders to Utah began in the 1970s-1980s and continues to the present. Utah now has 26,000 Pacific Islanders, mostly (65-70%) in Salt Lake City County, who make up only 1% of the state’s population, but per capita are one of largest Pacific Islander communities in the U.S. They have been “westernized” in Utah, a process making its way back to the islands, with less working on the lands and oceans, relatives sending western remissions, etc. Today, 7 of the 10 most obese populations in the world are in the Pacific Islands. In Utah, Pacific Islanders have the highest obesity and infant mortality rates and high incidents of diabetes, strokes, and heart disease. Many view doctors and health care as a last resort. They face challenges with language and navigating the system, as well as some cultural norms that discourage engagement with the health care system. They have high dropout rates among youth (24% in Utah) and high incarceration rates. In the Salt Lake City area they reported 4000 unique ER cases among Pacific Islanders, vs. only 400 in the Federal Health Clinic system in all of Utah.
Her oral history project surveyed Utah Pacific Islanders about eating habits and body image. They found both men and women prefer bigger sizes and consider skinny people unhealthy. A diet traditionally dominated by vegetables and fruit has been replaced with a meat-heavy one. Physical activity rates are low while food is considered important to connecting with others. She noted higher obesity rates among older and married respondents, with 60-70% of Pacific Islanders overweight or obese, but almost 50% see themselves as only slightly overweight, while among those who are underweight 23-26% see themselves as fat. Only 47% reported adequate physical activity versus 23% in Utah as a whole, and women had even worse rates because of worries about causing themselves injury and preserving their beauty. There was also much higher “screen time” among Pacific Islander youth vs. Utah youth in general. Food consumption was close to the Utah norm, but Pacific Islander rates were still higher.
These interviews helped to identify ways to address this health situation by increasing physical activity and reducing consumption of sugary drinks. They started a program to get women to go on a walk while at the tennis court instead of sitting around watching the men play. They are also trying to use community spaces like churches and schools for healthy activities (free Zumba, family health classes, athletic tournaments). When they aimed these activities at men, the men showed up alone, but when they involved women the whole family got involved.
Leslie G. Kelen presented “Documentary and Ethnic Identity: Challenges and Possibilities.” The Center for Documentary Expression and Art is an independent nonprofit organization based in the Salt Lake Valley that joined with the Utah Coalition of La Raza in 2010 to begin a year-long training program for Utah high school-aged Chicano/Latino youth to use oral histories and photos to document Chicano/Latino leaders. CDEA has done projects on multicultural Utah for over 30 years, and this project aimed at connecting youth with older Chicano/Latino generations.
CDEA treats oral histories as personal stories that bring memories into public, document stories that may not be known otherwise, and break social barriers to show youth they can succeed. Oral histories help break down barriers between generations, model storytelling, and get youth to think about their own stories. Kelen then demonstrated CDEA’s oral history website, which includes general information and a bibliography followed by an interview section. He then played with an interview with Andrew Valdez, first Hispano-Latino judge appointed to the bench in Utah, produced by Kelen’s son. Valdez spoke about his mom, who worked full time and encouraged him to pursue an education. She came from a New Mexico Hispanic community, refused to accept welfare, and encouraged a strong work ethic in him. Next he played an interview with Ruby Chacón, a Salt Lake City artist who discusses how her work as an artist was shaped by her identity and the way Chicano/Latino people are (mis)represented in media. Finally he showed several films of student interviewers speaking about their own lives. They discussed challenges of crossing the border alone, losing family members abroad, fearing for their own safety due to their immigration status, and dealing with the deportation of their parents, but also spoke about their dreams and aspirations for the future, to succeed here in the U.S.
D. Ryan Lynch presented “Strange Bedfellows: How a Science Museum, a State Agency, and Local Organizers Made It Possible to Re-Write Rochester, New York’s History,” about the archival collection of Juan Padilla, a Puerto Rican man who lived in Rochester since 1963, housed at the Rochester Museum and Science Center, a youth-oriented science museum which also houses a history collection and a small library. This archive touches on race relations, education, and neighborhood history. Brought to upstate New York as a farmworker after World War II, like many Padilla stayed after the end harvest. The farm workers also included African American migrants who came up from the South. An atmosphere of racial tension in Rochester resulted in the 1964 Rochester race riot, after which Juan got involved in Black Power organizations and later War on Poverty organizations. His first job was to recruit Hispanics into a War on Poverty-funded group. In the 1970s he moved into community organizing, working to preserve the coherence of the local Puerto Rican community. Health care was a major focus of his work. His WEDGE organization trained health care workers in bilingual communication and reiterated that they could not rely on janitors or food service workers to translate Spanish for Puerto Rican patients. He moved on to work with local schools and helped found a major upstate New York Puerto Rican youth leadership organization. By the 1990s he had boxes of information on his work, but no one seemed to care.
In the year 2000 the Documentary Heritage Project (DHP) used the New York state archives catalog and research library information to reach out through small local grants to bring local collections into archives under flexible standards. This process brought Juan’s collection and a couple of others to the Rochester Museum and Science Center where long-active archivist Lia Kemp founded Rochester’s Latino Archives Project in 2003. This brought a community organization and state agency’s funding together to collaboratively building this archive. They also edited a special edition of Rochester Magazine that highlighted stories from these collections, documenting stories and events that show the histories of Puerto Ricans and the Black Power movement in upstate New York. It also helps redefine the history of Rochester beyond one of a post-industrial city with a purely black or white population.
Peter Johnson (Princeton) asked the first three speakers how they see the communities they discuss being influenced by the Mormon presence in Utah, and how they differ from immigrant communities elsewhere. Tavake-Pasi responded that she is a Mormon, though the Pacific Islander population is religiously diverse (includes Methodists, Catholics, Baha’i, many more), and she finds the issues she identified are the results of families or values, not their religion. Johnson followed up asking if Mormons statistically are no different than non-Mormons, in terms of teen pregnancy rates or other social indicators. Tavake-Pasi said they were, that people have studied Mormon and Methodist populations among Tonga youth and the main difference is that Mormons are more likely to speak English vs. Tongan. Kelen responded to Johnson that the Mormon influence in the Latina/o community is largely political because of Mormon political conservatism. That said, Salt Lake City is exceptional (50-60% Democrat, largely non-Mormon). Tavake-Pasi added that she feels the racism in Utah is worse than in other areas. Ortiz said that in Cache Valley about 1500 Hispanic/Latino people are LDS, and he finds it hard to generalize quantitatively, but he thinks it is important socially in shaping integration and education. He thinks the second generation may have an easier time and have more tools for integration, but this needs more study.
Melissa Gasparotto (Rutgers) asked Kelen how he got such open conversations from youth. Kelen responded that part of it was the interview process with elders, where they saw these people tell really painful stories. For example, Judge Valdez told of being bullied by other kids, and how his brother had encouraged him to fight his tormentors, but he ultimately chose not to. They saw respected and successful people dealing with serious challenges, and now wanted to reflect on that and tell their own stories. Ortiz then added that the interview process is important, that you need to work to build trust with youth to give them a basis to tell and share their stories, which can be built in conversations with elders from their communities. Kelen then added that adults modeled to youth how to tell their own stories.
Moderator: Adán Griego, Stanford University
Adán Griego, Stanford University
Involvement with ALA & Attending International Book Fairs
Alison Hicks, University of Colorado, Boulder
Participation at International Library Conferences
Orchid Mazurkiewicz, HAPI
Indexing for HAPI and MLA
Panel 8: Professional Development Outside of SALALM
Adán Griego reminded us that the American Library Association Free Pass program offers travel support and lodging for ALA-member librarians to attend the book fair in Guadalajara. In addition to the book vendor and publisher booths, he added that local and national library associations in other countries frequently have their annual meetings and other events in conjunction with book fairs. This can provide opportunities for librarians from the United States to present at these meetings or to attend the meetings to learn what issues librarians worldwide are facing.
Adán urged SALALM members to work with librarians in Latin America and said that library associations and conferences in other countries often want speakers who can address the audience in Spanish to talk about library issues. He said that they do not need us to tell them about SALALM – they know about our organization already. We should approach them and offer to speak about other areas of expertise and offer trainings in these areas (instruction, technology, cataloging, etc) in Spanish. He also said that United States embassies have IRCs (Information Resource Centers) that are not fully staffed by librarians so they look for librarians to come and talk about library services. The embassy opportunities are sponsored by the US Department of State so speakers must be US citizens to qualify.
The ALA committee on accreditation needs Spanish speakers to get involved and to help with the accreditation procedures for schools seeking accreditation outside of the United States and Canada. Adán warned that this is not an easy volunteer activity because it requires a great deal of work and time commitment. ALA will pay for the travel and will train the volunteer, but that’s about it. This volunteer activity requires onsite visits to library schools.
Adán noted that ACRL and ALA both have poster sessions which can be a place to get experience presenting and a good way to advertise SALALM. He added that in ALA, WESS (West European Studies Section) includes Iberian Studies.
Alison Hicks elaborated on the international presentation opportunities that Adán mentioned. Alison has worked with Adán to secure invitations to present on various topics (MOOCs, technology, instruction, social justice in libraries, and digital scholarship) throughout Latin America and in Spain. She also has promoted herself by contacting local libraries before planning a trip some place (often in conjunction with a book fair) to see if she can add a presentation to her travels. Through these experiences she has met some great international colleagues and has been able to see different styles of hosting and organizing conferences.
Alison noted that some of the challenges she has encountered were practical issues like travel delays and having to sneak snacks because the meal times did not match with her blood sugar levels. Speaking in different environments can be difficult and stressful due to the varying acoustics and technology. She also mentioned that she has had to clarify expectations with the hosts. Some groups have asked her to do too much (an example was five classes that were each four hours long) and that had to be negotiated. She said she has learned to be conscious of the potential power differential and works to make sure she presents herself as a dialogue creator and not as an outside “expert.”
Alison has branded herself through social media and her personal web page and that is how many of the invitations arrive. She also has successfully communicated the value to her supervisor and library administration so they give her the time she needs to make these trips.
Alison finished her talk with suggestions about publishing opportunities. She has written reviews for Choice and she also seeks UK publications. When possible, she publishes in Open Access publications so her work can have wider dissemination. She repurposes projects to try to get multiple presentations and different kinds of publications out of the same body of work.
Orchid talked about indexing for HAPI and MLA. She said that indexing is a great way to capture a sense of where a work fits into the larger scholarship.
HAPI was started in the mid 1970s by Barbara Valk at Arizona State University. When Barbara went to UCLA, she brought HAPI with her and even though now HAPI is a non-profit publishing unit at UCLA, it is self-funded. HAPI started as a print series but published the last print edition in 2008. Since then, HAPI has been 100% online and is now free in Latin America and the Caribbean. The majority of HAPI’s 25-35 annual indexers are SALALM members. Gayle Williams has been indexing for HAPI for 35 years; Nancy Halloway has been indexing for 31 years.
Volunteer indexers are assigned 6 titles. They review the articles in those journal issues and create the HAPI records. Indexers used to have to fill out a print template, then that moved to a .txt document but now the indexers get to enter information online in HAPI Central and the authority control lists (author and subject headings) are in convenient drop-down lists.
Orchid said that MLA indexers are called “Field Bibliographers.” They must be MLA members and each Field Bibliographer is responsible for 5 periodicals or 100 citations per year. MLA requires that their volunteers have access to the material (but HAPI has been known to mail indexers the journals if they need to).
Orchid polled indexers from HAPI and MLA and the comments about advantages and challenges were similar from the two groups. The main challenge indexers cited was the ability to find the time and to pace oneself with the issues to prevent getting behind. The rewards of indexing are also similar and included keeping up-to-date on the literature and contributing to the field and its scholarship. Another benefit to indexing that one’s searching abilities are greatly enhanced through the experience of creating records for the database; by experiencing the limitations of and becoming familiar with the controlled vocabulary, indexers become better researchers.
Rapporteur: Jennifer Osorio, UCLA
Sócrates Silva, University of California, Santa Barbara
La Familia: Documenting LGBTQ Student Networks in Higher Education
Michael Scott, Georgetown University
Contad@s: Data Sources on LGBT-Headed Families in Latin America
Melissa Gasparotto, Rutgers University
Uncovering the US Latina Lesbian Genealogy
Sócrates Silva presented his work on the documenting LGBTQ student groups in California, entitled, “La Familia: Documenting LGBTQ Student Networks in Higher Education.” He began with a definition of family from The Queen’s Vernacular: A Gay Dictionary (1972) as way to set the context for his study of family in the queer context, and how student groups at higher education institutions in California served as a space where ethnic identity is merged with queerness, and both are celebrated and embraced. In this way they contribute to campus political activity but also serve a social function. Silva focused on California groups with “La Familia” in their name, asking the following questions:
1) Why did the concept of family resonate with these groups?
2) What are the connections between these groups?
3) What kind of documentation can be found about these groups, and in a larger context, what function do university archives have in documenting student groups: and what is it about university archives that makes that function difficult? Why should this matter for a “transient” group?
Through interviews on the UCSB campus, he determined that the number of people on campus who were queer and Chicano was so small, that it almost felt like the group was predetermined. As such, many of the groups are not hierarchical and most social media groups are closed. Archiving them is difficult for these reasons, and also because of the transitory nature of the groups, there is little continuity to websites. This creates difficulty for web archiving, but it helps create a safer space for groups that still experience hostility and alienation on college campuses.
Next, Michael Scott presented “Contad@s: Data Sources on LGBT-Headed Families in Latin America.“ The main focus of Scott’s project was to investigate how governments construct sexuality, more so than the actual sources themselves. But gathering the data is difficult for a number of reasons, including the fact that census sites are often developed by statisticians, not information professionals. Thus, the data is often easier to find in reports, which he demonstrated with reports from Argentina, or in the actual questionnaires themselves. Even then, the questionnaires often don’t ask about orientation, they only ask about relationships, so people who are not part of a couple do not get counted.
Sócrates Silva (UCSB) asked where these non-governmental groups were getting their information, in that case and the answer was that they were mostly doing their own limited polling.
Scott named several non-governmental groups, mostly in Argentina and Mexico, that are providing their own data. Other entities, such as the Latin American Public Opinion Project has had questions about same sex marriages and other queer issues in their survey for the last five years, and the Gender Watch database is very good for getting primary resources on LGBT issues in Latin America.
Nora, from the Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Sociales y Desarrollo (INCEDES) asked why Scott had not included Guatemala and he replied that Guatemala does not include questions about sexuality in their census. Only Brazil, Argentina, possibly Costa Rica and Mexico do, and Chile has plans to include them in their upcoming census.
Finally, Melissa Gasparotto presented her paper titled “Uncovering U.S. Latina Lesbian Genealogy.” She explained that her presentation was really about the value of raising students’ critical consciousness about hierarchies within the library, particularly in the context of overlapping identities, such as queer/latino. Rutgers, where Gasparotto works, has a very diverse population, include a Latino population that is more diverse than usual (most investigations at other institutions have been about Chican@s). Because of Rutger’s mission and past leadership, there is very active and enthusiastic queer activism. She initially started when students came to her looking to find themselves in the literature, and found that a lot of terms used to describe the population were static and inaccurate. She argues that it’s important to help students understand the histories of hierarchies, because it doesn’t occur to them that libraries are political entities. Working with faculty to ensure that class goals include critical thinking about data and sources on the part of students ensures that they will better understand the ways in which terminology can affect research.
A discussion followed with several participants discussing ways in which student groups could be encouraged to archive their materials. Ryan Lynch (Knox College) asked Silva if anybody has experimented with college archives helping students do some self-archiving and figuring out some confidential ways to store materials. Silva replied that, yes that could be an approach. One of the issues is that students are just too busy and so are archivists, so he was wondering how Rutgers managed it. Gasparotto answered that she thought it really came down to Rutger’s history as an activist institution.
Anne Barnhart (University of West Georgia) suggested targeting faculty advisors, but Gasparotto pointed out that those advisors change a lot; Lynch agreed, noting that the groups themselves also changed frequently and that some of them were not the kinds of groups that worked with advisor.
Sarah Hogan (University of Chicago) wanted to know if some of the groups on the UCSB campus that Silva had studied where splintering as they found themselves focused on different issues. He responded that at UCSB, El Centro was actually an umbrella organization with some 10 different groups of various affinities. Gasparotto asked if anyone worked somewhere where groups were not under student organizations but where instead situated under a fully staffed center, like at Rutgers. Roberto Delgadillo (UC Davis) said that they have a new cross-cultural center that houses many groups but that some are housed elsewhere and there are communications issues. Hogan mentioned two different projects occurring at the University of Chicago to document LGBT groups. Ryan Lynch pointed out that Cornell does a very good job of archiving LGBT student groups and has been doing so since the 1960’s.
Tracy North (Library of Congress) asked Gasparotto to talk more about the hierarchies of LoC subject headings. Gasparotto replied that subject headings are moving targets — that the terminology is always changing and we’ll always be playing catch up. Even the queer community doesn’t have terminology everyone can agree on, and she referred to Emily Stravinsky’s paper arguing that we should just leave the subject headings static so that people would be forced to confront archaic terminology and its effects. Gasparotto wants the word queer to just cover everything as it’s been “accepted” but Barnhart pointed out that acceptance of that term is very regional and that it is very problematic on her campus.
Ryan Lynch (Knox College) asked Scott if other countries had found a way to combat the situation in Bolivia, where questions about sexuality where left off the census because it was feared that people wouldn’t want to confess such matters to census takers. Scott replied that what really seemed to be changing attitudes was the passage of same sex marriage laws, as in Argentina and Chile.
Silva asked about the questions on the LAPOP and whether the questions were being asked in all the countries covered by the project. Scott said that yes, the same questions were asked in all the countries and that they tended to be things like “What do you think about gay marriage?” or “What do you think about homosexuality?”
Gasparotto asked if Silva had a timeline for finishing his project and visiting California Archive and he said that not yet, but he was also interested in conducting some oral histories.
Finally, Barnhart requested that the presenters put their materials in the SALALM institutional repository for use by others, especially any teaching materials.
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