Currently viewing the tag: "Lisa Gardinier"

Monday, June 15, 2015 4:30 p.m. – 6:00 p.m.
Moderator: Alison Hicks, University of Colorado, Boulder
Rapporteur: Melissa Gasparotto, Rutgers University

Sara Levinson, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Following the Clues and Getting Help from your Friends: Creating a Catalog Record for an Item Written Almost Entirely in a Language You Don’t Understand

Leif Adelson, Books from Mexico
Reflections on Why There Are So Few Digital Format Academic Titles in Mexico

Jesus Alonso-Regalado, SUNY/Albany
Crowdfunding and Collection Development

Lisa Gardinier, University of Iowa
Conversaciones con fanzineros: Collecting Zines in Latin America

D Ryan Lynch, Knox College
US LIbraries for Beginners: Library Instruction for ESOL students

Jorge Matos, Hostos Community College/CUNY
Latino Librarianship in a Predominately Latino Community College: Thoughts form a New Junior Faculty.

Ana Ramirez Luhrs, Lafayette College
Crossing the Border: Librarians in the Classroom Beyond Information Literacy

David Woken, University of Oregon
Human Rights and Genocide: Leveraging Academic Library Resources to Support Secondary Education

Sara Levinson, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Following the Clues and Getting Help from your Friends: Creating a Catalog
Record for an Item Written Almost Entirely in a Language You Don’t Understand

Building off of last year’s presentation on correcting and enhancing OCLC records, Levinson spoke about collaboration as a solution. In the previous year’s presentation she had used a problematic MARC record for an illustrated story demonstrating that the language was problematic and format was inaccurate. She was pretty sure it was a Mayan language but not sure which one. After returning from that conference, Levinson was contacted by another SALALM member, Ellen Jaramillo, who suggested a possible dialect, Tzotzil Maya, and developed a partial translation of title. Jaramillo found Princeton’s institutional record for the same item which somehow is not in OCLC. It’s also partially in Spanish. In that record, a proper name was mentioned and there was an authority file for him and he turned out to be a Tzotzil religious leader.  Levinson edited the OCLC record and made changes to Princeton’s record, adding a “comics and graphic novels” heading and deleting an old incorrect heading for Huitzil readers. The final takeaway is that OCLC is only as good as the information that member institutions contribute to it and cooperation is key to the process.

Leif Adelson, Books from Mexico
Reflections on Why There Are So Few Digital Format Academic Titles in Mexico

Adelson noted that Mexican academic institutions produce the overwhelming majority of Mexican academic titles. There are independent houses that publish with academic publishing houses, too, but this is a small portion of production (less than 10% estimate by Adelson). There are other potential sources for digital publishing – author self publishing, small publishing outfits, NGOs, etc., but they lack the impetus and wherewithal to intervene in publishing digital monographs. Squeezed between forces, content producers must publish for academic stature while income pressures producers to make their writings available digitally. Also international electronic distributors approach publishers and offer money to publish those products on their format. But presses believe they should distribute publicly funded research for free. All are poorly equipped to conduct a cost benefits analysis. Given that this is a new field, it’s hard to calculate profit potential from free digital publications. Many academic publishers have been shielded from market pressures and don’t know how to transition to profit seeking digital publishing.

Many presses want to distribute in this way but rights management and technical platform considerations make things more complicated; plus, these conversations are slower to get moving in Mexico. Additionally, institutional academic publishers have a long history of non-bottom-line mentality. Generating revenue or being economically stable has not been part of equation.

There are opportunities (e.g., aggressive strategies in digitizing, publishing and publicizing through vendors) that could help alleviate economic pressures. Additionally, the government could issue standards for digital publications or create a national server for these digitized monographs. These things could put Mexico in front of today’s digital academic publishing trends.

Jesus Alonso-Regalado, SUNY/Albany
Crowdfunding and Collection Development

Alonso-Regalado made the distinction between this topic and fundraising for library-generated library projects. His project deals with generating revenue to fund projects outside the library (projects by authors or filmmakers that result in books or videos): the library helping to create items that they then collect. He sees this as a potential for libraries to be co-creators in the production of knowledge. He advocated for crowdfunding for creation of materials as a valid method of collection development, as many of these crowdfunding projects might not happen without library support.

How can librarians do this? Support may be provided via Kickstarter, Indiegogo, USEED. Alonso-Regalado uses same collection development criteria with these projects as he would for other more traditional collection development decisions, such as reading project description, etc. Many times, supporting the crowdfunded project is the only way you can acquire these limited edition items, but any library, large or small, can afford this. However, fund management and structure might be problematic. In Kickstarter you put in chargecard but you don’t pay until the project reaches its goal. But what if that creator never finishes the item/project.? The creator must work that out with funders. You can advocate for these things even if you’re not doing it directly, and have someone else back the project and donate the resulting items.

Alonso-Regalado talked about four projects he had backed in this way.The book Invisible Immigrants Spaniards in the US 1868-1945, and the films Papa Machete, Memories of Guantanamo, and Save our film: la ciudad.

Lisa Gardinier, University of Iowa
Conversaciones con fanzineros: Collecting Zines in Latin America

Gardinier had been collecting zines from Latin America for last 3 years. Zines are generally self-published with intention of being serial, and they are often personal.

The acquisition of zines typically requires an informal method of collecting. For example, attending “La Otra FIL” in Guadalajara, which happens in conjunction with the larger book fair, but at another site. Sometimes zines come to her in Iowa in the form of visiting artists who can either donate their own works or put her in touch with others. Social events can lead to collecting opportunities, and she has had lots of conversations with fanzineros about why she was collecting and the value of exerting effort to build these collections. One of the most important parts of building a collection like this is building relationships, showing creators that people care and that this material is important. The work represents voices that are otherwise unheard and so these materials belong in an academic library. These materials are getting the same treatment as any other acquisition format. Since they’re inexpensive, budget is not much of a problem.

Q&A for first half of the panel
Jade Mischler of Tulane asked Alonso-Regalado how he finds out about these projects. Is he in Kickstarter searching, or does searching elsewhere lead him to Kickstarter? He answered that both were the case.

Daisy Dominguez of City College asked Alonso-Regalado if he had supported a project that was unsuccessful and how did that look to library administrators? He did back a project that ultimately failed but they tried again. His support of these projects was a proof of concept so he used his own money and donated books.

AJ Johnson of UT-Benson asked if Alonso-Regalado had looked into any music projects on Kickstarter. He answered that he hadn’t seen projects for Latin American music. He added that other platforms for crowdsourcing allow you to connect things to development office of the university. If your library doesn’t want to do it, you can try to convince your constituents to do it and donate toward the item.

Miguel Valladares of University of Virginia asked Gardinier if she was collecting zines from Spain? She answered yes, but unintentionaly. They’re very transnational She can find one country’s publications in another. For example Spanish anarchist zines from the late 90s are still floating around Latin America with prices in Pesetas. They get photocopied over and over and redistributed.

David Woken of University of Oregon noted that he had tried crowdfunding and backs a lot personally. People may present themselves well but there may be problems after the fact. For example, one video project on racism that he has personally backed is taking a long time and getting lots of criticism from other documentary makers for failing to secure proper permissions, You don’t know if the product will be made ethically. Alonso-Regalado responded that this is a question of trust and that if they fail it will affect their reputation. He added that he will alert SALALM members if/when he identifies other projects of interest.

D Ryan Lynch, Knox College
US LIbraries for Beginners: Library Instruction for ESOL students

How do you engage students in academic support resources at your college or university? How do you overcome perceived or real barriers preventing access to resources like the library or tutoring? Lynch is the library liaison for all non-departmental centers and offices (e.g., Center for Teaching and Learning, Global Studies) and spoke about involvement  with IELP (Intensive English Language Program) a two-week summer bridge program for international students who need extra language and writing skills to help them get a jump start before semester. This was the college’s very first summer bridge program, and part of the VPAA initiative to focus on retention and success. It was approved at the last minute so there was little time to prepare.

The ½ credit program consisted of six hours of English language and writing instruction each day for ten days. Instruction was delivered by Center for Teaching and Learning and peer writing tutors. The library provided 4 short sessions (two times each week of the program). The library sessions were scheduled for the end of the day and students were inevitably exhausted by the time they arrived. The goals for library sessions were to cover the physical space, the librarians, library resources including I-share, helping students understand the differences between types of information, where to look, and search strategies.

Lynch sought feedback on expectations, constructive criticism and information on student engagement with resources on campus, conducting six semi-structured interviews over 7-8 hours. When asked why they chose to participate in the program, most said they had gaps in English and/or lacked confidence. Some students wanted to get to know the town, some wanted to meet people and others wanted to get an edge. One student remarked that for “every international student no matter how well you are prepared you are still underprepared.”

Five out of six students had come to the reference desk and half had sent their friends to the desk. Every student had remembered every skill covered in the four library sessions. Five out of six had used tutoring and three had referred their friends. They sent their friends to people they were familiar with. All students were positive about the program, but they were a particularly highly motivated group and perhaps not representative. Lynch concluded that this was a nice model for helping less acculturated students become more acclimated to and more engaged with support.

Jorge Matos, Hostos Community College/CUNY
Latino Librarianship in a Predominately Latino Community College: Thoughts form a New Junior Faculty.

Matos began by presenting demographics of Hostos at a glance: 60% of students are Latino, and many are West Indian, as well. 65% are women, ¾ of students live in households earning less than $30k/year. Half are the first generation to attend college, and 1/3 continue on to 4 year institutions. The college serves lots of working mothers and other working students. These facts aren’t always obstacles and can sometimes add to the educational experience. Hostos was founded in 1968 through political pressure/advocacy, and located in old abandoned tire factory. There were no labs, pool, theater or gym. The 1975-7 Save Hostos campaign, in response to a decision to close the school and merge it with Bronx Community College, was a major turning point in the school’s history. Students, faculty and the community participated in mass demonstrations and engaged in civil disobedience. Supporters took over the Grand Concourse for a whole afternoon and brought classrooms into the street. In a strategy to bring national attention and establishment press to focus on the issue, they occupied the college for 20 days and the New York State Assembly eventually conceded to protests. These actions lead to the saving of the college and its continued development into what it is today. Hostos is a service-oriented institution and during his first year Matos participated in traditional reference and instruction, bilingual services and interaction with students and staff. Many students are recent immigrants. Sonia Sotomayor’s mother graduated from the college in the 70s with a degree in nursing.

Matos concluded with observations from first year. The current challenges include funding and space issues, library instruction and outreach to faculty (there is limited library staff), services to students with disabilities (modern adaptive technologies are a challenge), the increasing role of community college as site of workforce development and remedial education. Community colleges may be seen as an institution of last resort of lower income and communities of color or the disabled; this is a national trend.

Ana Ramirez Luhrs, Lafayette College
Crossing the Border: Librarians in the Classroom Beyond Information Literacy

Lafayette College is a small 4 year liberal arts college with approximately 2,000 students in Eastern Pennsylvania. The student body is mostly middle to upper-middle class and caucasian and Ramirez Luhrs serves as an advisor to Hispanic students at the college. She partnered with a LAS historian who works on Argentina and is interested in issues on gender and diversity on campus. They taught a class on these issues in 2013. The History 275 course was a 50/50 shared collaboration so Ramirez Luhrs was a teacher as well as embedded librarian. The course was organized around the themes “moving, mapping and telling.” Harvest of Empire was their main text and an anchor for all class discussions.
Ramirez Luhrs discussed the resources she used during each of the class themes.


This theme explored Mexican migrant workers in US (going back to Treaty of Guadalupe), and the Brazero program. It was important to use primary sources and teach visual literacy. The novel’s Mother Tongue and Drown were used for this theme. A few Latino students on campus self-selected for the class. Some were Dominican so the instructors added the Junot Diaz book to relate more.


Ramirez Luhrs is interested in the politics of Latino immigration, so the class took a deep look at the Census and its history of representation of Hispanics and Latinos through the years. She also used Pew Hispanic Center as a resource because she wanted to give students a chance to access good data that doesn’t need to be crunched too much.


Anzaldua’s Borderlands was used in support of this theme. Ramirez-Luhrs taught students how to use governmental primary sources to research law. Students completed an assignment on legislation and gave presentations on the immigration propositions in CA and AZ, which were current events at the time. Other texts used included Frontera, The Circuit and Becoming American.

Lafayette has special collections with related content, including protest posters on anti-immigration policies, and these are used as teaching materials.

Students produced a document: 10 Things Every US Citizen Should Know about Latin American Immigration. Her students held an “Immigration Week,” and worked to get the campus community to think about human rights issues and immigration.

The co-teaching partnership brought the students into the library and lead to them telling their friends. The other professor feld that better quality assignments were turned in. A further outcome was that the students no longer had barriers about going into the library.

David Woken, University of Oregon
Human Rights and Genocide: Leveraging Academic Library Resources to Support Secondary Education

Woken presented on his involvement in a workshop that the University of Oregon hosted for secondary teachers, about human rights and genocide prevention. Lectures exhibits and workshops were conducted for both faculty and high school teachers as part of a grant-funded program.

The program wanted to bring in lots of disciplines to help people think about how they might teach about human rights, and the teacher workshop topics included:

  • Gendered violence and impunity: Bangladesh and Mexico
  • Teaching human rights in Latin America: problems sources and methods (Woken co-taught with a professor in the History Department
  • Art and human rights in Latin America: pedagogical approaches
  • The thirst for human rights and the struggle for water in Latin America and Africa

Woken’s workshop covered repressive states of the Cold War era. He built an online guide for university instructors, modified to emphasize open access materials (primarily in English). Both he and the faculty co-teacher wanted students to seek a critical understanding of human rights. For example, Woken highlighted online truth and reconciliation documents, and how to think about the limitations of these documents.

Challenges and Lessons:

  • Provide useable information about a range of different cases while not oversimplifying
  • Avoid stereotyping
  • Deal with complexity of human rights as a concept itself
  • Provide teachers information that they can work with and giving them a positive example with which to work
  • Working within the restraints high school teachers face
  • Not stereotyping the teachers (It turned out that many of the teachers were Latinos, and Spanish language resources could have been useful)

Second Q&A

AJ Johnson, UT-Benson, asked Woken if there had been a follow-up from the teachers and if he had promoted the teaching of online primary sources. Woken answered that lots of contacts were made, which has been very positive. He added that there was a trend in common core to encourage primary source reading, and that he did discuss them, including the Archivo Policia Guatemala.

May 21, 2013, 4- 5:30 PM
Moderator: Alison Hicks (University of Colorado-Boulder)
Rapporteur: Ryan Lynch (University at Albany, State University of New York)


  • Artículos destacados: Using and Improving the Best of Wikipedia — Lisa Gardinier, University of Iowa
  • Tricking Internet Algorithms: La Energaia, Contemporary Indigenous Thought and Humanities Classrooms — Suzanne Schadl, University of New Mexico
  • Working with the Experts: Faculty and Student Contributions to Metadata for Cuban Theater Collections at the Cuban Heritage Collection – Matt Carruthers, University of Miami
  • Be a Web Search Maven: Shock Your Students, Enliven Your Instruction, and Teach Them a Lifelong Skill – Adrian Johnson, University of Texas, Austin
  • “Too Much Information” – Re-imagining the 1-shot Library Session with Active Learning Strategies – Gabriella Reznowski, Washington State University
  • Using Boards to Prevent Boredom: Active Learning in a Latin American Politics course – Anne Barnhart, University of West Georgia

Hicks began by explaining that the session, now in its third year and formerly called “Pecha Kucha,” had been renamed. After a competition, the winning title was “Roda Viva,” suggested by Timothy Thompson (University of Miami). Hicks and Thompson explained that the title is a Brazilian Portuguese term to describe “incessant movement, hustle and bustle, a whirlwind of activity” as well as a talk show on Brazil’s public television station, TV Cultura. She also announced that there was a slight schedule change and Anne Barnhart (University of West Georgia) would be going first.

Using boards to prevent boredom: active learning in a Latin American Politics course / Anne Barnhart (University of West Georgia)

Barnhart explained that she was going to talk about an evolving lesson plan and assignment that she has tried in a few political science classes, but that it can easily be adapted to other courses/disciplines. She also said that she has tried this in credit-bearing courses, in double one-shots, etc.

She said that her favorite instructional technology is the whiteboard or, better, back-painted glass boards (as Sharpie comes off of glass). She also noted that students tend to prefer purple markers.

Barnhart noted that using whiteboards was effective with students because it got them out of their chairs, away from computers and phones, and made them accountable for helping each other out. She also noted that in order for the lesson plan to work, students need to have skeletal research projects.

For the lesson, the instructor distributes markers and each student writes his or her topic on the board and explains this in words, as a concept map, etc. Students then go around in a circle, making comments on others’ work, writing notes, circling parts that they like or are unclear, and generally doing a peer review. Barnhart notes that this is called a carrousel model. She added that the professor and librarian join the carrousel.

She then introduced a “who cares” prompt, which helps them think about whether or not their topic is appropriate for their audience, and also about where to look for resources. In other words, who cares enough to gather, organize, or disseminate certain types of information?

At the end of the session, students take photos of their section of whiteboard or copy their sections. This becomes the day’s notes.

Barnhart said that this is a session where the librarian is forced to let go of control (it is a classic flipped classroom). Instead of teaching students how to find resources, it teaches them how to approach research. She complements this with LibGuides, which they can use outside of the classroom. She also noted that the lesson requires a lot of collaboration. Professors must collaborate to require students to come up with research topics; students must collaborate with each other; and students must collaborate with the librarian because she requires them to be active agents.

Barnhart pointed out that this can be done with paper, post-it notes, etc.—it is a good session for rooms with no computers or resources.

In conclusion, she hopes that these sessions are aimed at getting students more engaged in research through active and kinetic learning.

Teresa Miguel–Stearns (Yale University) asked Barnhart how she helps students actually find resources and navigate the webpage if that is not happening in the classroom. Barnhart responded that she has never done this in one, 50-minute session, so she uses a second to introduce students to the library webpage or a LibGuide. She also suggested that in a 75-minute session, the librarian would have time at the end to do that or that the librarian could set up individual appointments.

Artículos destacados: Using and improving the best of Wikipedia / Lisa Gardinier (University of Iowa) Gardinier stated that she has done this lesson twice with undergraduate classes, both taught by the same professor. One was an upper-division Spanish course, while the second class was a more basic Spanish course.

For this assignment, students are required to do a group project in which they create and contribute to a wiki article. This is a private wiki created for the class. Students need to have passwords and their contributions are only visible to classmates. The assignment was developed for a specific assignment, but Gardinier stated that it could be used to teach about Wikipedia or adapted to other contexts.

Gardinier pointed out that the first dilemma that she and the professor confront is that they are creating a wiki, but students are told that Wikipedia is bad and they are not supposed to be using it. They therefore try to turn this into a “Wiki-positive class.” She does this by acknowledging that “they use it already, and there are some very pages.” Gardinier then explained feature articles/artículos destacados, which are articles that are developed according to certain criteria. She also demonstrated the Spanish criteria for an artículo destacado.

To prepare for the course, Gardinier takes the wiki topic, and identifies feature articles relevant to the class. She starts by creating a worksheet and beginning her discussion talking about who uses Wikipedia, and how/why/when they use it, and why they are told not to use it. Gardinier introduced the idea of Wikipedia as a “presearch tool.” They further discuss what their criteria are a good Wikipedia article (asking each student to list three characteristics) before introducing them to the criteria for feature articles and leading a discussion about what might surprise them (such as the style manual). Her idea is that a very good Wikipedia article is a good model.

Students are then asked to think about sources, and what makes a good source. For instance, Wikipedia articles cannot cite other Wikipedia articles. Further, this is an opportunity to look at different citation formats for different kinds of sources and discuss issues such as differences between journal articles and news articles. As an aside, she notes that this is a use for Wikipedia pages: the use of the bibliography and references.

She then talks to them about a weakness in Wikipedia, which is journal sources. She then introduces students to search tools (a federated search for the 5th-semester students, databases such as Academic Search Elite or JSTOR for advanced students) and has students find a couple of sources.

Finally, Gardinier said that in assessments using minute papers, students said that they did not know about the structure of Wikipedia, and that it was helpful to learn about it.

Tricking internet algorithms: La Energaia, contemporary indigenous thought and humanities classrooms / Suzanne Schadl (University of New Mexico)

Schadl addressed how to incorporate digital-born materials into digital humanities research, using as an example La Energaia. She stated that she is looking for help, support, advice, assistance, and other ideas for her class in the fall. She further stated that the purpose of the course module was to apply an understanding of trends and to execute methods in Latin American studies. She spoke to the idea that Latin American Studies historically provides a means for scholars who have historically felt marginalized in their disciplines to get together and exchange ideas with one another. She clarified that there are preceding lessons in the module, and that each lesson identifies important concepts, with the idea that this will help with better teaching. Examples of these concepts are that disciplines arise from necessity, that information can be marginalized, and that interdisciplinary work disrupts center-periphery identifications.

Other preceding lessons give an overview of trends in Latin American humanities disciplines; provide an examination of how the humanities generally incorporate comparative analysis and require interacting with source materials; look at how information comes from different places (including the internet) and access in different places is unequal/uneven.

Schadl then discussed La Energaia, a searchable database of born-digital materials on energy and energy policy, pulling from Twitter discussions, government documents, news sources, and institutional repository materials. This is done through a site that pushes information out through Twitter.

For the assignment, students will form five groups, identify a subject (like energy) and start to develop the places where born-digital materials are addressing this subject, with the objective of integrating these into an Energaia-like resource. Finally, groups will present a proposal for this project to a panel of professors, who will then make suggestions on how to better-integrate what they are doing into that field.

Related link: La Energaia

Be a Web Search Maven: Shock your students, enliven your instruction, and teach them a lifelong skill / Adrian Johnson (University of Texas, Austin)

Pointing out that the holy grail of information literacy instruction is getting students interested, which says is best addressed by lessons that are not just relevant to one research paper but instead to students’ daily lives. The one place that he has had success with this is in web searching skills, teaching students how to really effectively search. Johnson states that there are two keys to this: transferability (such as to databases or other parts of life) and the so what (thinking about what kind of information they want to find).

Johnson emphasized that it is extremely important to know what kinds of sources searchers are looking for, allowing them to narrow their searches. He then went through a number of advanced search techniques that are effective for students, including searching by a domain, country domain, specific websites, NOT and OR searches, the use of asterisks (to replace a word or phrase in a quote) and the tilde (synonyms), search for terms in the title of a web page or a URL, use of ellipses to search for numbers in a range, the use of these strategies in different Google products, and combining several or all of these strategies.

Finally, Johnson talked a little about how Google works, which he said is exciting to students because they use it so often, but have no idea how it works. Johnson then discussed how it is a database that uses cached snapshots of pages, additional information about given web pages, the idea of the “overblown algorithmic estimate,” the concepts of personalized searching and page ranking/popularity (including the popularity of pages that link to a page), and that the fact that to results are historical and that popular placement is hard to break away from.

Related Link: Johnson’s evidence that popularity is hard to break away from because it is historical (a page he made in library school).

Working with the Experts: Faculty and student contributions to metadata for Cuban theater collections at the Cuban Heritage Collection / Matt Carruthers (University of Miami)

Carruthers replaced Natalie Bauer (University of Miami) in the preliminary program.

Carruthers spoke of faculty, student, and research fellow contributions to metadata for the Cuban Heritage Collection (CHC) digital collections, which is a special collections repository at the University of Miami. The CHC focuses on primary and secondary materials from Cuba and the Cuban Diaspora. There are many active digitalization projects.

They are working with Lillian Manzor (University of Miami) to use digital humanities in teaching her graduate course on 20th century Latin American theatre to help students see the value in digital media. Professor Manzor and staff coordinated to create an assignment whereby students created metadata for objects related to their own research. This metadata would be added to digital repositories, along with images of the projects.

Carruthers discussed logistics of the projects, including challenges. As a metadata librarian, he introduced metadata creation to students in one class session, so he embedded himself in the class Blackboard page so that he could be in dialogue with students. Another question was which platform would be used for students to inter metadata; it was decided that the Cuban Digital Theater Archive would be easiest, as it already has a platform for entering metadata. Another problem was the lag time in the digitization queue.

Carruthers then outlined successful outcomes. For one, it allowed the “library to engage more broadly with faculty and students.” Students learned about how to structure data, and came to value both the digital humanities and metadata. Furthermore, the Cuban Heritage collection gains from subject expertise of graduate students, and CHC users also benefitted from better metadata. Finally, the project had low overhead and high value, so he encourages others to experiment with these kinds of projects.

Cuban Heritage Digital Collections

Cuban Digital Theater Archive

Too Much Information” – Re-imagining the 1-shot Library Session with Active Learning Strategies / Gabriella Reznowski (Washington State University)

Reznowski described a 10-20 minute 1-shot session, emphasizing the importance of teaching outside the box, rather than using lectures to teach skills. One problem she spoke about was reaching out to instructors and faculty, and figuring out their information literacy instruction needs. One major need is to help students understand the difference between scholarly and non-scholarly articles.

Her strategy was to gather classes to talk about scholarly articles. This can be used in small classes or groups of over students. She talks to them about some things that can be expected with scholarly articles, including authors’ names and credentials, they may have abstracts or credentials, and they may end with a bibliography or works cited list. They then count off into groups that congregate around a poster-sized piece white paper. Reznowski then distributes scholarly and non-scholarly articles, asking students to answer basic questions such as the title of the article, the periodical it was in, and how they would cite the article. If there is time, groups can rotate to the next group, check the answers of the other groups, and try to find articles using the citation and World Cat. This helps them learn but also serves as an assessment tool for faculty and librarians.


Emma Marschall (Tulane University) asked Carruthers for an example of what kinds of materials students were describing and about whether or not the material was in English or Spanish. Carruthers said that some of the objects were sketches for theatre costume designs. He added that the metadata is not truly bilingual, and that while some descriptive information is in Spanish (the materials are in Spanish), but that the technical metadata is in English to be consistent with other collections.

Kelsey Corlett-Rivera (University of Maryland) explained that the University of Maryland also has some projects where students work on metadata and that they have used Google spreadsheets, and wondered if Carruthers had tried other possibilities. Carruthers said that they had considered a basic template, but that the platform already existed and would automatically save, so they thought it would be simplest to do it that way. On the other hand, a Google spreadsheet that they can all share and something that does not go directly go into the database could be useful. Corlett-Rivera asked what the back end for the Cuban Digital Theater Archive is, and Carruthers explained that it was Django, which is a PHP and Python framework.

Manzor asked Schadl how La Energaia is structured. Schadl explained that it is a database constructed in Drupal that plays with Drupal’s pathways to put everything in the same place, taking advantage of crawling. Schadl added that Twitter is harder, because it cannot be crawled so they have to go in and enter hashtags.

Deb Raftus (University of Washington) asked Johnson if he does standalone Google classes. Johnson responded that he does drop-in advanced Google searching in person, online, and recorded and also weaves it into all classes by relating database searching to Google. He stated that students of all levels love it.

Hicks asked Reznowski about feedback from faculty and students. Reznowski said that she was inspired to do this lesson by a failed session where she did not do what the faculty member wanted, and failed to get what was expected of students. In one case, he created a class LibGuides where a survey was embedded, but no one completed it; surveys need to be completed in the classroom. Finally, she has come to try to have students pick a topic that they are interested in and try to research that.

Hicks thanked everyone for attending. The session ended at 5:12 p.m.


Tuesday, May 21, 2013, 8:30am-10:00am

Moderator: Melissa Gasparotto, Rutgers University

Rapporteur: Emma Marschall, Tulane University


  • Not Ready for Prime Time: Measuring Publications/Citation Impact for Latin American Titles — Amelia Craig, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Subregional Headquarters, Mexico and Mirian Ramírez, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Biblioteca Hernán Santa Cruz
  • Seeking Stability Online: Analyzing the Online Availability of a Latin American Serials Collection — Lisa Gardinier, University of Iowa
  • Evaluating the Content of the Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI): A Bibliometric Analysis of Latin American Serials — Bruce Bachand, University of Kentucky and Orchid Mazurkiewicz, University of California, Los Angeles
  • Documenting Pan-American Scholarly Communications: A Citation Study of Less Commonly Taught and Indigenous Languages — Marina Todeschini Crumbacher, University of New Mexico and Suzanne Schadl, University of New Mexico

Melissa Gasparotto introduces the first presenters and thanks them for their willingness to be the trial for virtual presentations at SALALM. Amelia Craig (United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Subregional Headquarters, Mexico) and Mirian Ramírez (United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Biblioteca Hernán Santa Cruz) — Not Ready for Prime Time: Measuring Publications/Citation Impact for Latin American Titles

Mirian introduces herself and Amelia over the Skype chat and begins the presentation using Skype chat and Prezi PowerPoint. They will be discussing the findings of their study titled “Study about the Impact of ECLAC Publications in Academics”. The purpose of their study was to gather information about coverage and impact of ECLAC publications. The study was conducted between 2003-2012 by searching 5 selected databases – Scopus, Scimago, Google Scholar, SciELO, and Publish or Perish. Findings show low coverage; almost none in the open access platform, SciELO. The study also finds that while there was poor ranking in the world, there was good ranking in Latin America. One of the limitations of this study was that it only measured the impact on academic, not on public policy or the political world, where CEPAL has an arguably greater audience. These findings lead to the following suggestions: to start a new internal discussion; come up with strategies to increase visibility; develop a methodology for continued impact assessment. A review team was formed to work on these issues. Mirian’s chat function is dropped due to technical difficulties. Amelia continues for her. CEPAL is trying to increase visibility in selected databases including: Econolit, ISIThomson, HAPI, Scopus, Dialnet, DOAJ, IBSS, Pais International, EBSCO Open Access Journals, CLASE, and Latindex. Mirian comes back online and begins again, stating that CEPAL has a long tradition of freely available information, but they are working to make this information more accessible and stable, by: reviewing international standards, including international and regional indexes, redesigning the journal website. They will also be taking steps to: evaluate alternative indicators for impact factors, implement a new institutional repository, working on new marketing strategies that utilize social media and apps, and the library is planning new services and user training on the impact of researchers’ publication.

Amelia takes over, saying that Mirian has presented a review of the pilot program, and she will continue by talking about alternative ways of thinking about impact factors beyond the traditional citation method. She reads a quote by Jason Priem about problems with traditional impact factors. The academic world has different ways of sharing data and sharing research, professor to professor, through gray literature that the sharing of information doesn’t wait for publication; it happens through networks of people; so it’s worth considering the impact of research before it hits the traditional publication model. Problems with traditional research include: it is slow and conventional, it is retrospective, the quantity of citations is valued over quality, there is no way to distinguish between positive and negative citations, the lack of context from on discipline to another, and there and language and regional biases and does not include publications in all regions. Amelia talks about tools that use traditional citation metrics: Google Scholar Citations, SCIMago, Publish or Perish, SciELO. She reiterates that there are scholarly citations in formats outside the traditional measures used by these tools: through blogs, shared software, repurposed data, public peer-review, pre-prints, record management tools, and twitter. Therefore, it is worth looking at alternative metrics, promoted by people like Jason Priem, readership and diffusion and reuse through the web; Impact Factor is an example of a tool created through a Sloane foundation grant, that does this; Altmetric looks at social media; Mendeley looks at tags, etc.; Plum Analytics looks at likes, tweets, etc. Amelia offers up there contact information and invites further discussion.

Melissa Gasparotto introduces the presenter. Lisa Gardinier (University of Iowa) — Seeking Stability Online: Analyzing the Online Availability of a Latin American Serials Collection

Lisa thanks Mirian and Amelia for doing this pilot program with the Skype presentation and for her opportunity to work with the Biblioteca Hernán Santa Cruz, where she worked on the project that she is presenting on. The Biblioteca Hernán Santa Cruz received 316 print-only periodical subscriptions. The study was to find out how many of these titles were available online, either in proprietary databases or freely accessible. The question was, if these resources were freely available online were they stable enough to stop receiving print copies of these titles? The CEPAL collection is mainly focused on the social sciences, economics, business, government documents, and includes formats such as academic journals, trade magazines, and government documents, received by subscription, exchange, and donation. The procedure was to check each title in the catalog, using Ulrich’s, although there were problems with title search, then searched by publisher. In the initial 2011 results, of the titles, 182 were from Latin America, 96 with some online availability, and 46 evaluated to be reasonably stable online.  At the time the study these titles where not broken down by region, but this was done for this presentation. Recommendations from this study include: need to update the catalog records for titles that were not being received; while 172 were available online, of those only 96 could be considered stable. This left 220 titles that could only be received in print. These titles were ranked, with the limitation of Lisa not being a digital preservation expert, so her professional judgment as a librarian was the key factor in ranking the stability of the online availability in the following categories: Yes/Probably/Maybe/No/Not satisfactory/By subscription. Latin American titles represent 46 of the 96 stable titles.

Currently in 2013, Lisa decides to revisit the findings that are relevant to Latin America for this presentation at SALALM.  She reviewed the academic journals and government documents from Latin America. In 2011, she had seen 40 academic journal titles and judged 26 of them to be stable; in 2013, 20 were still stable; 7 of these put their publications on Open Journal Source. She also checked holdings on Redalyc and SciELO. In terms of government publications, in 2011 Lisa was struck by the apparent transparency and availability of the Chilean government publications, citing an example of statistical information published by the Ministerio de Educación from 1986- in many formats; it was stable, had experienced titles changes and had two urls. 2011 coincided with the rise of the student movement. In 2013, there have been 4 education ministers since 2011.  The urls for the Ministerio de Educación are gone; the information only goes back to 2001; not captured by Internet Archive. Of the original 2011 study, 42 of the 316 titles were government documents; 26 of those were available on online; 12 were stable at the time. In 2013, only two have declined; of the instable government documents publications sites from 2011, 8 had improved. In conclusion Lisa there is stability and some stagnation, Latin American journals have support through open access, but the governments may not be ready to rely on online publication.

Melissa Gasparotto introduces the presenters. Bruce Bachand (University of Kentucky) and Orchid Mazurkiewicz (University of California, Los Angeles) — Evaluating the Content of the Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI): A Bibliometric Analysis of Latin American Serials

Orchid notes this study is the result of an internship program with HAPI that Bruce did. This internship was set up to analyze the steady stream of new titles that are up for inclusion in HAPI, to find with titles represent the best candidates for inclusion. Most years, there are a number of titles that are indexed by HAPI that are ceased, so there is an opportunity to add new titles. Every year there are few days that HAPI staff considers the new titles and deliberates which to add based on fit with the existing titles, and strengths and weaknesses of coverage of subjects. The big problem is, for example, that if HAPI indexes 10 Brazilian economics journals, and in the new titles there are 2 new Brazilian economics journals, the decision may be made to exclude both, to favor a subject area that is not as well covered as Brazilian economics, even though they are both excellent. Currently, the process does not include a review of all 12 titles, the 10 already in HAPI, and the 2 new titles, as a whole, to evaluate the quality and choose the 10 best. In the long term, the potential consequence is that the subject coverage may not represent the best scholarship in that area. The internship was created to evaluate the titles indexed by HAPI for quality, excellence, and value. Orchid turns the presentation over to Bruce.

Bruce cites Jean-Claude Guédon’s definition of quality and excellence: Quality–Peer review, editorial board, style guide; Excellence–Impact factor, use. Bruce recognizes problems of cultural bias and industry practices that may affect these measures; many Lain American journals of high quality have low impact factors. Because of this, a third factor, that of value, defined as Journal’s influence relative to other titles in its field, was incorporated into the evaluation. The methodology for evaluation for HAPI’s 367 titles involved the use of the Latindex score (for quality) Impact Factor, Redalyc downloads, Global Use Measure, SciELO Visits (for excellence) and a survey of SALALM members (for value), although there were too few responses to incorporate this into study. The Latindex score found for 198 of the HAPI titles; Chile has the highest score, Mexico has the most titles rated, most in the near perfect, while at the same time having many in the lower ranks, more than most countries. This shows that Latindex is providing straightforward evaluation of quality of its own country’s production. Impact factor was available for 93 titles from the HAPI index; many came from SciELO and SCIMago. In these, the US publications had the highest impact factor (21 titles), followed by Brazil and Mexico. Providing the median, the impact factor for Latin American journals tended to be low. Also, the fact that only 25% of the titles in HAPI had information about the impact factor indicates that much citation work remains for Latin American bibliometric compilers. Readings are so few that we hesitate to draw conclusions. For one, it is quite likely that IFs range differently in each subject area, recalling Garfield’s statement that “the size of the scientific community that a journal serves significantly affects impact factor.” To test this, we compared the IFs for anthropology, economics, history, and the social sciences and humanities. When the IFs were averaged by subject area we discovered that economics journals have IFs that are, on average, twice as high as IFs for journals in anthropology, history, or the social sciences and humanities. Again, it is preferable to have more IF data before making such inferences, but preliminary findings seem to confirm Garfield’s observation. Despite the small sample size, we can be fairly confident that vast differences in excellence exist between titles ranked in the top 20 and those ranked in the bottom 20. It logically follows that those in the bottom 20 could become candidates for de-selection, or at least placed on a “need further investigation” list.

Bruce notes that they are running short on time and says he is going to skip through a few of the following slides. There are findings on excellence (based on use), based on Redalyc and SciELO; findings suggest that users of Redalyc are primarily Mexican and users of SCIelo are primarily Brazilians. The top ten titles by use in the respective databases reflect the regional bias; 8 of the top 10 are from that country. There is also information on the Global Use Metric, created for the purposes of this study by Bruce and Orchid, trying to get a handle on what regions the Redalyc downloads are coming from. The next slide discusses value. Bruce states that due to his background in anthropology, he has familiarity, through publication or serving on the board, with 4 titles in HAPI. What are the differences among these four journal titles? The crucial distinctions are: (1) feeder vs. synthesizer journals, and (2) invited vs. non-invited submissions (formally only), and (3) different degrees/levels/manners of cronyism.

We know that HAPI contains a large number of US titles, many with high IFs, and some of HAPI’s Latin American titles receive high marks in both quality and excellence. But a huge gap in our knowledge remains because no data or partial data are available for many titles. Even though HAPI comprises a miniscule slice of the Latin American serials universe, complete bibliometric data are available for only 10% of its titles. This makes it extremely difficult to develop an objective strategy for selecting and deselecting titles. Our overall impression is that HAPI’s content is very good, but there is ample room for improvement. HAPI most likely indexes a small number of titles that should be replaced with titles of higher quality/excellence relating to the same fields. The data we’ve collected helps us identify HAPI titles that should be safe from de-selection, but the absence of comprehensive data makes it difficult to confidently identify titles for de-selection. Going forward, we hope to combine the limited data we have with a strategy to assess the value. Our brief foray into the labyrinth of “value” suggests a new path for acquiring relevant qualitative information that could help HAPI make informed decisions about journal worth. This strategy would seek expert scholarly opinion on the nature of a specified group of journals within a narrowly defined field. With such information, the final piece of the evaluation puzzle would be in place. Because HAPI covers such a small slice of the Latin American literature, it is well-positioned to develop itself as a highly refined, authoritative information resource like none other for Latin America.

Melissa Gasparotto introduces the presenters. Marina Todeschini Crumbacher (University of New Mexico) and Suzanne Schadl (University of New Mexico) — Documenting Pan-American Scholarly Communications: A Citation Study of Less Commonly Taught and Indigenous Languages

Suzanne Schadl introduces Marina, a student in Latin American Studies, who worked on this project to evaluate how language materials are being used in dissertation research at UNM. This presentation represents a part of a larger research project. This study, as the others, found problems with the metrics; the study began by looking at Spanish and Portuguese materials to determine which departments where using these materials, and they found the problem that, being a part of Spanish America, there were students using Spanish and Portuguese materials from the perspective of the New Mexico locality; there is a large indigenous population and there is a large group of Native American studies.  This information is being separated for the larger study, but this presentation focuses on Navajo, Mayan, and Portuguese.

Marina continues to explain the methodology: checking citations in UNM dissertations in Google Scholar Index for these languages, as well as circulation statistics for these language materials at UNM. The goal was to understand usage and embeddedness of language materials in order to propose outreach and collection development practices. She outlines the community profile at UNM: Population Spanish Presence (35% @ UNM) and Native Presence (6% @ UNM); Student Success Services; Academic Emphasis on Latin American & Native American studies and Area and including Programmatic Support of the Latin American and Iberian Institute, the Institute of American Indian Research, the Indigenous Nations Library Program, and the Inter-American studies Library Program. Collection coverage of language includes: Portuguese 61,300 Volumes (only Portuguese); Navajo 924 Volumes (mixed Navajo and Bilingual); Mayan 478 Volumes (mixed Mayan language groups and bilingual). Methodology: Small Sample, limited to one year (2010); searched for words in the title or abstract Dissertations with Indigenous or Brazilian content. They found 15 total = 2 Brazilian and 13 Indigenous (mixed New Mexico Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, Latin American peoples) In these dissertations, they then conducted a citation analysis for foreign language usage and compared the citations against the collection in order to analyze the availability of the works cited. Circulation analysis for usage in general and citation index analysis on circulating titles in Google Scholar. The findings suggest that limited accessibility, defined as limitations in publications or in collections, lead to limited impact, defined as the repeatability of references in scholarly communications, but not limited usage.

Marina proceeds to break down the findings by language. Findings for Portuguese, Navajo, and Mayan, referring to the measurements for Citations in dissertations, Circulation of materials from the UNM collection, and Citation Indexing of the cited titles. What can librarians do?

Suzanne reviews the implications for alternatives to collection development. Work actively with local scholars, and organizations to get foreign language materials into their hands. Identify opportunities for building collections. Library hosted institutional repositories allow for individuals and organizations to determine what resources illustrate their organizational goals and priorities.  There is precedent for this practice in special collections (oral histories and interviews), with the example of the France V. Scholes Collection; the American Indian Oral history Collection and with projects that are ongoing, such as the Latin American and Iberian Institute’s Lobo Vault and the K’iche’ Maya Oral History Project.


Peter Johnson (Princeton University) states that Bruce is one of the SALALM scholarship awardees. Peter cites the case of Chile, a country that prides itself on access to education and information about Argentina. The fact that a decade of information can disappear, especially if paper publications are not available, this is a concern in this area of information and has implications for other Latin American countries.

Lisa Gardinier (University of Iowa) has heard that other colleagues are ceasing to collect print government collections. She was shocked to find that this information had disappeared in Chile. With academic journals, she feels that these are stable enough, especially with platforms like OJS.

Emma Marschall (Tulane) states that she doesn’t have a background in Government Documents and is not knowledgeable of how the governments of different Latin American countries make information available, in what formats and how it is distributed, and that this presentation opens the way for a discussion of that topic. She asks how we can become more informed about government publications as librarians.

Lisa Gardinier (University of Iowa) that it does seem that government publications were often irregular, this is continuing in online formats, and they are ceasing print publication and distribution, and online is unreliable.

Paul Losch (University of Florida) trying to bring together some of the points discussed in this panel and another panel on e-books, he posits that if freely available electronic information is considered to have increased value, through adding metadata, accessibility, maybe vendors can be encouraged to deal with these kinds of materials.

Allison Hicks (University of Colorado) has a question for Amelia. Have they encountered regional bias for Impact Story and have had any success introduction impact factor metrics to researchers? Amelia (very hard to hear) can’t say for sure, it would need more study, but believes that while there may be some bias towards the U.S. right now, there is potential for similar application in Latin America. She asks Allison to repeat the second part of the question.

Allison asks Amelia to write that study.

Amelia talks about potential to study the government documents, too and her experience when she was previously in Chile, where the question of whether or not to archive online government publications came up.

Allison repeats her question: have you had any success introduction impact factor metrics to researchers?

Amelia has not had much experience, but has some researchers who might be interested. She cites a study by Jason Priem that dispels the idea that there is an age-gap for researchers using Twitter as an academic tool, and believes that this supports the idea that many researchers would be interested in these newer tools and invites further conversation.

Melissa says that there is time for one more question, but there are no more questions. She asks that the presenters put their Power Points in the SALALM repository because they offer helpful models. Melissa thanks the presenters.

Sunday, May 19, 4-5:30

Moderator:   Adan Griego, Stanford University

Rapporteur: Lisa Gardinier, University of Iowa & Michael Hoopes, University of New Mexico


  •, Felipe Varela
  • Digitalia, Lluis Claret
  • Librería García Cambeiro, Fernando Genovart
  • Casalini Libri, Kathryn Paoletti
  • Librarian Perspective, Suzanne M. Schadl, University of New Mexico
  • Librarian Perspective, Angela Carreño, New York University

Griego (Stanford) introduces the panel by asking what has changed since the first inception of an e-book panel at SALALM in 2009 and noting that librarian concerns and vendor responses have been fruitful. He concludes by acknowledging current issues with the portability and compatibility of certain e-readers and the inter-operability of interlibrary loan systems; but states that regardless trends published by ACRL indicate that e-books are here to stay.

Despite the growth of digital formats from Latin American publishers, it appears that numbers are fairly low, with each country producing fewer than 5% of its publications in digital formats. Current studies on e-book usage in academic and public libraries are briefly discussed.

Individual presentations from e-book vendors are given by representatives of Casselini (Italy), Digitalia (Spain), (Spain), and Libreria Garcia Cambeiro (Argentina/Brazil).  While each vendor’s product is distinct, all three vendors discuss similar topics that include the special formatting, search capabilities, compatibility with mobile devices and citation exporters, and purchasing for their specific products.

Angela Carreño (New York University) discusses her institution’s decision to adopt a publisher platform and e-book strategy. She touches on the needs of certain services within e-books such as note taking and searching that make for a comfortable scholarly research environment, stating that the development of user/research-friendly platforms is a process very much still in development.

Suzanne Schadl (University of New Mexico) discusses UNM libraries goals for e-book development (eventually holding 40% of their collections in ebook format to be accessed whenever and wherever patrons desire) and some current infrastructural obstacles. She notes that different users have different needs, and that while e-books stand to create space for studying and important physical items, they are not the only answer for academic research. Furthermore under-resolved infrastructural problems at UNM like poor wireless internet access in some parts of library buildings make to efficient ebook usage and promotion difficult. E-book displays also prevent obstacles for individuals seeking to read from their smartphones or tablets.


Hortensia Calvo  (Tulane) asks Carreño whether e-books will be utilized in study abroad and international campus sites of American universities.  Angela states that special programs like the NYU branch campus in Abu Dhabi and increasing pressure on research libraries to collaborate in smarter ways of making e-books more useful for branch campuses.

Vera Araújo (Susan Bach Books, Brazil) laments that the only e-books in abundance in Brazil are self-published books, novels, etc. How is the situation in other Latin American countries? Are there many e-books from Peru, Colombia, or Uruguay? A vendor responds by stating that Brazil is somewhat behind, and there is currently little interest among Brazilian librarians with regards to e-books.

A discussion on free materials takes place, with one Argentine librarian discussing the financial constraints of his institution and the common practice of uploading/downloading PDF files for academic use, a practice that accomplishes the same role as the e-book. One digital publishing representative responds by first stating that the debate surrounding free materials is a difficult one, and that he is personally against the use of free content. Such content is also unstable, available online one day online and gone the next.  Another representative is supportive of official open access titles, stating that the problem with organizations that only provide open access titles struggle to provide certain titles. The third representative states that the commitment of an e-book purchase ensures that a title will be stable and readily available to library patrons.

Angela Kinney (Library of Congress) expresses an interest in title-by-title (non-bulk) purchases of e-books. This desire is spurred by a lack of space for physical books. Her library also desires to develop a model that obtains a publication in a package that includes the physical book, the marked record, and the digital item. Is it possible for e-book vendors to conform to this three-part package? The e-book representatives respond by stating that yes, such packages could be made possible.


Panel 19, June 19, 2012, 11:00am-12:30pm
Moderator: Alison Hicks (University of Colorado, Boulder)
Presenters: Samuel Wicks (University of Pittsburgh); Tina Gross (St. Cloud State University); Sarah G. Wenzel (University of Chicago); Carolyn Palaima (The University of Texas at Austin); Laura Shedenhelm (University of Georgia); Barbara Alvarez (University of Michigan)
Rapporteur: Lisa Gardinier (University of Iowa)


Alison Hicks introduced the presenters and explained the pecha kucha format. Generally speaking, pecha kucha presentations are 20 slides for 20 seconds each for a presentation of 6 minutes and 40 seconds.

In the first presentation, “What Digital Collection? Issues of Collection Development, Cataloging Trends and Standards, and Ethical Considerations of Underground Music in the Caribbean and Latin America,” Samuel Wicks explored initial considerations in planning a digital collection for Latin American punk music. A collection such as the one proposed potentially includes media in a variety of formats, including text, images, audio, and video, from a variety of original carriers, including audio cassettes, vinyl records, ephemera, and fan zines. Wicks discussed open source digital collection management software, briefly reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of systems in relation to this project, including Archon, DSpace, ICA-AtoM, and Greenstone. Ultimately, CONTENTdm provides the most robust platform capable of handling audio and video files in addition to text and images, as well as allowing the creation of compound documents to group related items. Wicks created a “materials and techniques” metadata elements to more adequately describe objects such as album covers. Wicks also looked for other punk collections. He found a variety of projects, such as museum exhibits in Slovenia and Reno, Nevada; the Fugazi Live Series with the support of the original band; and fan-created digital collections like Killed by Death Records and Kill from the Heart. Finally, Wicks briefly discussed the challenge of identifying and obtaining copyright permission from members of sometimes obscure punk bands that have not been active since the early 1980s.

Because Wicks had to leave for the airport immediately after his presentation, there was a short question and answer period before moving on to the next presenter.

Miguel Valladares-Llata (University of Virginia) asked about the availability of the presentation. Hicks confirmed that she would post the presenters’ slides on the SALALM blog.

Laura D. Shedenhelm (University of Georgia) asked if links would be included. [At the time of writing this report, the slides have been posted on the SALALM blog, but links have not been compiled and posted.]

Meagan Lacy (Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis) commented that her library had difficulty identifying the copyright owners of a journal included in a digital collection. The journal itself did not include any copyright information. The library chose to post the content with a note that the copyright holder should contact the library and the library would remove the material if requested. Wicks commented that a similar practice is commonly seen on YouTube, in which content is posted with a note that the person posting the material does not own it, does not intend to profit from it, and will remove it if requested.

An unidentified librarian from NALIS commented that Greenstone is capable of handling audio files, as the NALIS Digital Library runs on Greenstone and includes mp3 files, notably in the storytelling collection. [Wicks later verified that the version of Greenstone he used was not capable of supporting audio files.]

Kumaree Ramtahal (University of the West Indies, St. Augustine) asked Wicks to elaborate on the process of uploading video in DSpace. Wicks used KeepVid to extract a file from YouTube and other streaming video.

In the second presentation, “Developing Local Cataloging Procedures for Access to Foreign-Language Films,” Tina Gross discussed providing better access to foreign films for patrons. Standard cataloging practice focuses on the physical object which, in the case of films, describes the location of the publisher, not the production of the original film. Patrons looking for foreign film, however, frequently want to search by country of production. Two new MARC fields, 257 and 044, have been introduced to capture “Country of Publishing/Producing Entity.” However, many integrated library systems are not configured to include that as a searchable field. Further, many OPACs do not distinguish between the MARC coding for the primary language of the film and the subtitles, making it difficult to search for a film based on its original language. Gross and the staff of the St. Cloud State University Library reasoned that activating the search functionality of the new MARC fields or language coding was a low priority for their ILS vendor, especially with the impending implementation of RDA, but still an important search strategy for their patrons. Gross and her colleagues chose to add local subject headings in the 655 genre/form fields:

  • Foreign language films – Language.

  • Motion pictures – Country.

These headings are browseable in the old catalog interface and appear as genres in the next-generation catalog with faceted search capabilities.

Sarah G. Wenzel followed with her presentation, “Patron- or Demand-Driven Acquisition: Strategies for Successful Implementation.” At Chicago, selectors were allowed to implement patron-driven acquisitions (PDA) however they best saw fit for their collections and patrons. This case-by-case implementation was chosen to foster support and buy-in from the selectors. Wenzel and her colleagues were seeking solutions to three primary questions: how to supplement selection without a budget increase, how to streamline and speed up selection, and how to serve faculty and other patrons who normally have little or no contact with the selector. The PDA program has not changed existing approval plans but adds a new approach to slips titles, or titles that are not completely peripheral to the collection but not core titles either. In Wenzel’s experience, this has not interfered with purchasing and she has made titles available by PDA rather than adding them to a desiderata list. Slips profiles have required some tweaking. Wenzel gave the science collections as an example in that they added “how-to” titles for programming languages, which they normally do not purchase but there is a point-of-need demand. Other selectors have imposed price limits on purchases and budget ceilings on call number ranges to preserve their existing budgeting patterns. Wenzel and other selectors use usage and PDA purchase statistics available through Ebrary to inform purchases, especially in fields in which they have little contact with faculty and students. Since records for PDA titles are loaded in the online catalog, purchases are not constrained by the availability of the paper book, but can be bought on demand, be it tomorrow or in five years. If a publisher ceases to offer their content by PDA but the library has already bought it, the library does not lose access, as opposed to the risk of losing content in a leased collection. Overall, selectors at Chicago who have participated in the PDA program and have spent the time to tailor their profiles have been happy with the program. Chicago would like to see more vendors offer PDA purchasing as the practice enriches the library’s catalog and provides greater access to patrons.


In the next presentation, “Collaborative Digital Archiving: A Non-Custodial Approach,” Carolyn Palaima discussed the Primeros Libros project as a case study. In this project, the University of Texas at Austin has worked with Texas A&M University and the Biblioteca Lafragua of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla to digitize New World incunabula, beginning with those published in Mexico. The collection is defined, also the first step in building a digital collection, as books printed in the New World before 1601, of which there are 220 known titles and 136 known to still exist. Primeros Libros’ initial focus are those printed in Mexico and to include as many exemplars of each work as possible. The next step in such a project is to identify lead partners in content, technical aspects, and digital preservation. University of Texas and Texas A&M are the initial partners, with 16 and 18 primeros libros respectively. The main Mexican partner, the Biblioteca Lafragua, was chosen more for its willingness to commit to the project than for its holdings. Initial content partners had as little as one item to contribute to the project. Scanning standards were developed by University of Texas  and Texas A&M. The project website with access to the complete collection was designed and is hosted by University of Texas. In terms of digital preservation, the TIFF images are stored with the Texas Digital Libraries Preservation Network and the Repositorio Digital Mexicano. All partner institutions receive a complete collection of TIFF and/or derivative images. The primary documentation for partnership is the project agreement and the digitization standards. Both are available in English or Spanish on the Primeros Libros website. Both University of Texas and Texas A&M set up scanning stations and trained staff to digitize their collections of primeros libros. A mobile scanning station was set up in Puebla with trained staff, which can travel to other content partners in Mexico. Other content partners are brought into the project based on institutional holdings. The project is non-custodial as materials do not have to be physically acquired by the organizing institution, digitization takes place locally, each partner receives a complete collection of the digital images, and the framework of the project can be adapted to the needs of participating collections. The project achieves a consolidated collection of dispersed holdings, allowing comparison of copies across institutions, and demonstrates international collaboration. University of Texas has used the non-custodial model in previous digital collections, notably the Human Rights Documentation Initiative and the Guatemalan National Police Historical Archive (AHPN).



The following presentation, “Library Outreach Using Library a la Carte (TM)” by Laura D. Shedenhelm discussed adapting selective dissemination of information (SDI) as a value-added service to Library à la Carte, an open-source content management system intended for subject and course library guides. Shedenhelm learned SDI in library school and used it early in her career in law firm libraries. In her current position as the Bibliographer for Latin America, Spain, and Portugal, she has used it to open lines of communication to faculty and students by capturing content about Latin America, Spain, and Portugal in otherwise general works, especially those that are not classed in the usual F and PQ call number ranges. While some of these titles would be readily apparent from scanning the New Titles List, the link for that list is a small one on the library catalog. Many of the chapters in other general works are searchable unless the table of contents is listed in a catalog record and are delayed in their inclusion in index databases. Shedenhelm used to gather new titles and relevant chapters in a document that she e-mailed to her liaison departments but she now maintains a Library à la Carte page, “Spanish & Portuguese: New Works in the Libraries.” Once a month she creates a list of the newest material and saves the old list as attached files, which are available for a year.


In the final presentation, “Publish, Not Perish! Supporting Graduate Students as Publishing Authors,” Barbara Alvarez discussed a workshop on publishing for graduate students. Alvarez and a colleague observed that they saw graduate students mostly early in their studies and less as they progressed. They felt, however, that research was only the beginning and they could offer support through the publishing process as well. While publish-or-perish is often associated with junior faculty, it creates anxiety amongst graduate students as well, who are concerned with making themselves competitive in a shrinking academic job market. Graduate students, though, may be reluctant to ask for advice from their professors and senior faculty may be decades removed from the experience of publishing as an early-career scholar. University of Michigan Libraries now house the University of Michigan Press as a department within the libraries, including MPublishing, which provides publishing consultation services and employs publishing outreach librarians, providing a natural partner for this project. Alvarez and her colleagues first began with a survey to find if such a workshop was needed and to identify what questions students have about the publishing process. The survey reported interest from students at all stages of graduate studies, including beginning students. Working from the survey results, they sought to address the following in a one-hour workshop:

  • the current publishing environment with information on Open Access and authors’ rights (covered by publishing consultants)

  • what and when to publish (covered by an invited junior faculty member with a strong publishing record)

  • how to select journals and publishers (covered by Alvarez)

  • how to respond to reviewers’ feedback

Future plans include open sessions available to students in all disciplines on general issues such as authors’ rights and sharing the workshop model with subject librarians to create discipline-specific workshops. Overall, the workshop was well-received. Alvarez and her colleagues concluded that it makes sense for librarians to be involved in the publishing process as an extension of research training. Graduate students may find the rapidly changing publishing environment to be overwhelming but it is a natural topic for librarians to keep up with. The workshop also supports change in academic publishing by educating young scholars about Open Access and their rights as authors.


Questions & Comments:

Palaima asked Alvarez if the LibGuide is freely available. Alvarez replied that it is.

Anne Barnhart (University of West Georgia) asked if Alvarez had worked with faculty, as she has noticed that faculty need guidance on publishing strategy as well. Alvarez replied that they are especially hoping to attract faculty to the discipline-specific and focused topic workshops. Faculty present a lot of opportunity for this program, such as inviting currently active faculty for informal, focused conversation with their colleagues and graduate students.

Meagan Lacy asked Alvarez what departments were represented in the graduate students who attended the workshop. Alvarez replied that the initial workshop focused on Romance Languages and Literatures students as an experiment. They are planning to talk with other subject librarians to share details and offer the survey for reuse, with hopes that others will approach their respective departments.

Alison Hicks asked Shedenhelm if her lists on Library à la Carte are available by RSS. Shedenhelm replied that it is available through the UGA Libraries website and is freely available. It takes her about 20 minutes each month to create the lists. Meagan Lacy asked if Shedenhelm manually compiles the lists or generates them through an automated process. Shedenhelm replied that she types the lists.

Margarita Vannini (Instituto de Historia de Nicaragua y Centroamérica) asked Palaima to elaborate on the institutional relationships involved in digitizing the AHPN collection. Palaima replied that the AHPN was a very large project with lots of people working on it. The archive is approximately 80 million pages. Agreements signed with the AHPN require open access. Digitization was done on-site in Guatemala. UT sent hard drives which were returned full. The first batch was 11,000 documents which were sent to the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) to be processed into TIFF files and derivatives. The site launched in December has sparse metadata but is open access. It is structured much the same as the physical archive, with documents organized by provenance and original order. Researchers can browse the digital archive by year, much as they would do with boxes of documents. There is currently no metadata for names and places. UT is expecting another 10 million documents and is working with the TACC to extract metadata the document images. This is challenging because of different handwriting, formats, and other variables throughout the collection. It has been a major collaboration over a long period of time. As soon as the website went live it received heavy traffic.

Rafael E. Tarragó (University of Minnesota) asked Palaima if Primeros Libros is limited to New Spain or if it includes all of Latin America. Early publishing also took place in Peru. Palaima replied that choices were made at the beginning of the project to limit the initial collection to Mexico. They hope to expand the collection geographically in the future.

Hicks asked Wenzel if Chicago’s PDA program included print or just e-books. Wenzel responded that it is currently just e-books. One factor in that decision is the speed of delivery and that it is currently faster to deliver materials through interlibrary loan or unmediated consortial borrowing. It is unclear if PDA for print would be an improvement in service.

Alvarez asked Wenzel if PDA records are loaded after a title-by-title selection or if they are loaded in a large batch of PDA records. Wenzel replied that PDA titles are loaded by batch based on the refined slips profile she has set partly based on subject headings. For example, she does not purchase language learning or ESL materials so those records are excluded from any PDA batch load.