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Currently viewing the tag: "Jennifer Osorio"
June 15, 2015, 3:00-4:30 p.m.
Moderator: Ruby M. Gutiérrez, Hispanic American Periodical Index (HAPI)
Rapporteur: John B. Wright, Brigham Young University
Paloma Celis-Carbajal, University of Wisconsin-Madison: Acquiring Latin American Materials in the 21st Century: A Prelimnary Report on the Collection Development Trends Task Force,
Debra McKern, Library of Congress, Rio de Janeiro Office: Brazil’s Popular Groups: Acquiring the Grey Literature Collection at the Library of Congress
Jennifer Osorio, University of California, Los Angeles: Serials Acquisitions in the Digital ‘Future’: If It’s All Online, What’s the Problem?
Ruby Gutiérrez announced a change in order of the presentations: 1) Osorio, 2) McKern, and 3) Celis-Carbajal.
Osorio discussed the different models of open access in Latin America (LA) and the United States (U.S.). Through her presentation she discussed answers for the following questions: Is open access in LA the same as in the US? How are the models different? Which if any are the implications for libraries and collections of the rapid adoption of open access in LA? Are there dangers to the breakneck speed of open access adoption in LA? What is in the open access portals and what is not. She described the transformation of LA universities from the former state-building enterprise, describing how higher education in LA now follows more the US research model and gives more visibility to women and lower classes. She then discussed LA journals and their status in open access portals. In 2003, 40 percent of LA journals were available through open access, and in 2010, 74% of LA journals were available through open access. LA open access portals have similar requirements for inclusion that monitored inclusion in the LA print journals and are still largely funded by government agencies. In LA, the assumption is that inclusion in open access portals equals quality. She showed several tables that showed in general terms the differences of the open access model in LA and the US. She indicated that because of the open access model of favoring international issues over regional issues, hard sciences over social sciences, English over Spanish/Portuguese, Large communities over small communities, Generic coverage over specialized coverage, Well-funded and stable over struggling, that some specific consequences result. They are, 1) regional or provincial voices are lost, 2) new scholars do not have a real venue for getting their research out, 3) voices in other languages than the dominant languages are lost, 4) publications are underfunded and erratic. There appears to be a sense of neo-colonialism inherent in this type of model. The implications on developing LA collections, require that representative voices not included in the portals be sought out. Regional, national and local titles in collection must be prioritized and acquired. Also, research in other formats must be sought out as well.
McKern discussed the grey literature collection from Brazil’s popular groups at the Library of Congress and the ways in which the Rio Office tries to acquire these materials for its collection. These popular groups include: Agrarian reform; Children & youth; Education & communication; Environment & ecology; Ethnic groups: Blacks; Ethnic groups: Indian; Ethnic groups: Others; LGBT; Humanitarian & civil rights; Labor & laboring classes; Political parties & issues; Religions organizations, ecumenical groups and movements; Urban activism; and Women & feminists. She focused in on one group type “Environment & ecology” to illustrate some of the challenges for acquisition of materials. A lot of material is only available on Facebook, but some of it will always be available in print because it is intended to be handed out to people on the street who don’t have internet access. LC’s collections are searchable, but you have to buy the physical filter to get access to what you can find in a searchable index. The researcher cannot currently access the collection. They are talking with Princeton to learn about possibilities of piggybacking on Princeton’s Ephemeral Collection. She had some extra copies of material fitting into these popular groups that were available for collecting by anyone interested.
Celis-Carbajal presented a preliminary report of the Collection Development Trends Task Force which has the following members: Lief Adelson, Alejandra Cordero, Lynn Shirey, Sandra Saores, Miguel Valladares and Paloma Celis-Carbajal. The group grew out of the Librarian/Bookdealer/Publisher Committee at SALALM LVIII in Miami. The LARRP Survey and the attempts of Inter-Library Cooperation Committee to construct an overall picture of collection development going on has become very difficult to pull together. The Task Force has created a 20-question survey instrument to go out to all members of SALALM who have primary responsibility for collection development in their respective institutions. The results of the survey will not be published because obtaining clearance through an IRB would have been overly complicated. To date, two individuals have taken the survey and provided feedback to the Task Force. In the panel today, Celis-Carbajal invited the group to look at two specific questions and take two minutes to read and answer the question, giving the Task Force feedback on whether or not the two questions adequately obtained the desired solicited information. The group responded that it is odd to have the entire Caribbean in one group, while other countries are broken out separately. It was pointed out that not everyone can answer the specific question about vendors as it does not give enough options for adequately answering. It was also mentioned that the survey should be routed to whoever is most capable of answering the questions. Many of our libraries acquire materials through various ways. Many libraries decide on a particular vendor as a result of service provided, not necessarily if the vendor resides in the country being collected. The time period referred to in the survey instrument is not clear, i.e. actual year, fiscal year (and many institutions have a varied of fiscal year periods). The survey instrument instructs to select the “preferred” outcome, instead of the “actual” outcome. The group asked Celis-Carbajal to explain the goal of the survey. She responded that it is hoped that the survey can be done over successive years so that SALALM can understand trends over time. It was pointed out that it may be difficult because of the size of country/region covered in survey, size of institution doing the collecting. It was asked if we would be able to understand any of the changes in trends.
Ruby Gutiérrez (HAPI) asked Debra McKern how exactly the gathering of Brazil’s Popular Collections grey materials is accomplished and what are the difficulties in obtaining this material? McKern replied that the four acquisitions staff members from the LC Rio Office, some retired staff, and some staff in São Paulo go out on the streets to acquire the materials. They go out to the hinterlands to collect materials and say, “We are from the Library of Congress” and people respond “Really?”. Jennifer Osorio (UCLA) asked if our individual institutions can send to LC grey materials we obtain for inclusion in LC’s collection? McKern indicated that they would accept materials. McKern clarified that as they go collecting, they do not put themselves at risk. She used to take photographs of materials, but was told not to do that anymore by the US Consulate who indicated that it looked bad for someone to be taking photographs of this material. Miguel Valladares (University of Virginia) explained that he has the professors take grey literature obtained by him and use it in their classes. Gutiérrez (HAPI) asked Osorio if there was an index for LA open access journals/portals. HAPI has an index of which materials they index that is open access. Paloma Celis-Carbajal (U of Wisconsin-Madison) indicated that there is a LARRP proposal for open access. Mei Mendez (U of Miami) asked about literary journals and their availability in open access if social sciences are not well covered in portals. Osorio responded that it is hard to find literary journals and hard to collect them. Leif Adelson (Books from Mexico) mentioned that there is still a strong government connection with the panels that create/monitor the portals and that there really is a de-emphasis on the humanities and social sciences. Debra McKern (LC Rio Office) suggested that grey literature needs to be put in an archive, but wonders how best to divide it up. Should it just be in the categories or types that they are collecting? It seems that a web archive would work well for the serials.
Monday, May 20, 10:30-12
Moderator: Georgette Dorn, Library of Congress
Rapporteur: Jennifer Osorio, UCLA
- Across Indianities in the 21st Century: Treading on/in New Places, Creating New Spaces — Carlos Mamani, Gannon University
- Heterodoxia Palikur: novas dimensões da cultura ameríndia — Carlos Shellard, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro and Susan Bach Books and Alexia Shellard, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
- Pachakutism: An Andean Philosophy of Space and Time — Manomano M. M. Mukungurutse, Nomadic-Independent Researcher and Writer
Mamani’s paper addressed the following themes: 1) how traditional cultures (in this case, Andean cultures) innovate and continue to create in modern times and 2) how the continuity of these indigenous Andean cultures has endured despite the conquest. Going back to Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, Quechua chronicler known for Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno, indigenous cultures have been contesting the European narrative and presenting their narratives in a fight for historical space. For Guaman Poma, Nueva Corónica was the chosen method of resistance, but today indigenous artists and writers use technology such as YouTube to communicate with each other and create their own narrative. In this way cyberspace becomes a new space inhabited by Andean culture. It is another instance in which instruments of western culture are used to continue and spread Andean culture. Prof. Mamani went on to show videos of several Andean musicians who post on YouTube and to quote a number of the comments on these videos, in support of the argument that these videos were creating a network to reinforce Andean Culture around the world. In the comments, viewers thanked the musicians for representing their culture so beautifully and for allowing them to stay connected to it. In this way, the framing of their own narrative by indigenous people continues, but in new virtual spaces.
Shellard translated by Tim Thompson (University of Miami) presented a paper written in partnership with Carlos Shellard (not present). The paper is a case study on the different ontological possibilities of modernity and some of the conundrums that indigenous groups face while negotiating different configurations of modern culture. The example presented is that of the the Palikur people, an Amerindian group living in the Brazilian state of Amapá, on the border with French Guyana. The goal was to analyze different conceptions of reality vis a vis the idea of heterodoxy, contrasting the notions of time and space expressed in Palikur narratives with modern scientific reason.
The Palikur were one of the first groups to come in contact with European invaders, and this contact led to them forming a more distinct identity as a form of resistance and self-preservation. They were one of the last groups to adopt western cultural norms, but in the 60s and 70s they adopted Pentecostalism and this led to the need to redefine their cosmological visions and bring together these opposing world views. However, they converted to Christianity in the second half of the 20th century, and with this conversion, they changed their notion of cyclical, ahistorical time to one with a chronological vision of events. They rejected shamanism, which allowed for the possibility of accessing different cosmological dimensions, as diabolical and not compatible with the Judeo-Christian tradition. Yet, this rejection was not total. The Palikur have found new forms of resistance and new ways to reconcile their traditional beliefs with modern ones.
Shellard focused on two ontologies: naturalism (western science, reason is absolute and nature is an object which can be understood through reason) and animism (indigenous cosmology, which provides for multiple natures, but only one cultural perspective). An example of this is in the Palinkur cosmology, where the world is inhabited by different beings which take on a human form in their own plane/dimension, but take on a different form in the human part of the world. In the myth of the great serpent, the serpent is in human form in its own world, whereas on the human plane it is a monster. Similarly, the jaguar perceives humans as monkeys and monkeys perceive humans as jaguars. Shellard cited examples of how modern Palinkur have rewritten their mythology to reconcile their history with the present-day beliefs. In large part, the mythic space was displaced to the realm of history, the past. The serpent was sent to the bottom of the ocean, but some figures from Palinkur mythology still inhabit the realm of the sky and new stories have been created to intertwine the two viewpoints.
Mukungurutse argued that Andean philosophy, which he calls Pachakutism, is central to the way the Andean people view themselves and study themselves. It is a ubiquitous idea that can also serve as the foundation for many philosophical traditions. Mukungurutse looked at the different philosophical traditions – classical, Asian, African, etc. – in order to establish Pachakutism within them and within the philosophy of space and time. It appeals to him because in the Andean tradition, space and time are always fused, not blended as they are in Western traditions. Central to Pachkutism is the concept of inversion. Inversion is central to human knowledge and since Pachakutism understood inversion earlier than any other philosophy (Mukungurutse cites Guaman Poma, centuries before Marx and Hegel), pachakutism is the most central and all-encompassing of world philosophies.
Georgette Dorn (Library of Congress): The jaguar does not exist in the Andes, so what is the mythical animal of Andean cosmology? Mamani answered that it would be the puma and that supposedly Cusco was built in the shape of a puma.
Vera Araújo (Susan Bach Books): How did the Pentecostal get to Amapá?
Shellard responded that the Assemblies of God have numerous churches in the areas, as the Amazonian area of Brazil was a main and early focus for them. They have three churches on the Palinkur reservation, one large one and two smaller ones.
Georgette Dorn (Library of Congress): How many Palinkur are there?
Shellard: About 2000.
There was also a question from Tim Thompson about Mukungurutse’s pointer, which turned out to be an Italian breadstick (Palo de pan) from Argentina.
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